# NEST Syllabus

## NEST Syllabus

The syllabus for NEST examination is basically same as CBSE syllabus of 12th standard. Detailed syllabi of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics are given below. There is no syllabus for the general section. This section tests the candidates’ familiarity with (and not a detailed understanding of) major historical milestones in astronomy, biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics The questions based on mathematics up to 10th standard will be included in this section.

Questions will be of objective type with questions having one or more correct answers and if all correct answers are not given, no marks will be allotted.

**1. **General section: There is no specific syllabus for the ‘General’ section of NEST 2011. This

section aims to test the candidate’s general ability to comprehend qualitative and quantitative

aspects of a given scientific passage. This will be done by giving a passage on some scientific

topic and questions based on the concepts elaborated in the passage will be asked. It is also

designed to test the candidate’s familiarity with (and not a detailed understanding of) major

historical milestones in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and astronomy. There will

also be questions testing mathematics understanding up to 10^{th} standard and application

capabilities of the same to specific simple problems..

**2. **Biology:

• Cell Biology: Cell theory Cell as a unit of life. Tools and techniques of cell studies-

Microscopy (use of microscope and calibration). .Elements of microscope. Biomembranes-

Transport mechanism, cellular respiration. Cell organelles: their structure and functions.

Discovery and structure of DNA, processes of replication, transcription and translation,

principles of the basic techniques in molecular biology.

• Zoology:

Anatomy and Physiology: (i) Digestive System: Modes of nutrition; Structure of alimentary

canal and associated glands, digestive enzymes and their role in digestion, absorption of

Products of digestion, peristalsis, balanced diet. (ii) Respiratory System: Gaseous exchange in

animals; Structure of respiratory organs, mechanism of breathing, gaseous transport, tissue

respiration. (iii) Circulatory System: Open and closed systems; Functions of blood and 1ymph.

Microscopic structure of blood and blood vessels. Structures and working of heart, distribution

of arteries and veins, circulation of blood coagulation, blood groups. (iv) Excretory System:

Elimination of nitrogenous waste, osmoconformers and osmoregulators; structure and

function of kidney tubules, arrangement of excretory organs. (v) Nervous System: General

account of brain, spinal cord and nerves. Reflex actions (simple and conditioned), sense organs

(eye and ear).

Reproductive System: Sexual and asexual reproduction; General arrangement of reproductive

organs.

Developmental Biology: Basic features of development in animals. Types of eggs, fertilization,

cleavage, blastula.

Diversity of Animal Life:_____ Principles of Classification, binomial nomenclature. General

classification of animal phyla upto classes (invertebrates) and upto sub-classes/order

(vertebrates), with detailed study of the types as indicated: (i) Protozoa: Amoeba, Entamoeba,

Paramecium, Plasmodium, Parasitic trypanosomes. (ii) Porifera {iii) Coelenterata: Hydra. (iv)

Platyhelminthes: Taenia and Fasciola (v) Aschelminthes: Ascaris (vi) Annelida: Pheretima

and Nereis (vii) Arthropoda: Crustaceans and Insects (viii) Mollusca (ix) Echinodermata. (x)

Chordata: General characters of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

Genetics and Evolution (Fundamentals only): Human genetics -Human chromosomes, sex-

determination, sex-linked inheritance. Evidences and theories of organic evolution.

Ecology: Physical and biological factors influencing organisms. Food chains, pyramids of

numbers and biomass, biological equilibrium. Interspecific associations.

• Botany

Anatomy and Physiology of Plants: Meristems -Plant growth and development. Internal and

external regulators of growth and development in plants, internal structure of root, stem,

secondary growth and leaves; Xylem and Phloem-their cell elements and functions: Internal

structure of dicot and monocot leaves; photosynthesis, history, importance, factors and

mechanism, stomatal mechanism, transpiration and respiration. Comparative study of dicot

and monocot anatomy. Absorption and cell-water relations, transport of water and minerals,

tropic and turgor movements. Significance of life-cycles with special reference to alternation of

generations as exemplified in Funaria, Selaginella and Pinus (No structural details).

Systematics: Principles of classical and new systematics. Binomial nomenclature. Familiarity

with taxa. Humans and Environment: Soil, rainfall and temperature with reference to natural

resources. Our natural resources -their uses and abuses. Environmental pollution and

preventive measures.

Genetics: Organisation of the heredity material in chromosomes. Equational division,

Reduction division, Mitosis and Meiosis compared and contrasted, significance of meiosis.

Mendel’s laws of inheritance: Discovery of linkage, sex-linked inheritance. Crossing-over,

stage at which crossing-over occurs: Neurospora genetics, Mutation, discovery, types of

Mutation and Mutations in diploids. Role of mutations in evolution, Elaboration of Mendel’s

laws of inheritance: Monohybrid or Dihybrid crosses.

3. Chemistry:

• Physical chemistry

Measurements in chemistry: SI units for fundamental quantities, significant figures,

significant figures in calculations

General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept;

Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept)

involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions;

Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation

from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and

most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures;

Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom,

quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle;

Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals;

Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s

exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation

involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;

Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR

model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square

pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume

work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of

thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle

(effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of AG and AG^{0} in chemical

equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases

(Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials;

Nernst equation and its relation to AG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s

laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity,

Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First

order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters

a, b, c, alpha, beta, gamma), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and

hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions: Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure,

elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of alpha, beta and

gamma rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of

nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions. • Inorganic Chemistry

Study of different groups in periodic table

Group 1A (Preparation, properties and reactions of alkali metals, with emphasis on chemistry

of Na and K – their compounds – oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates,

chlorides and sulphates)

Group 2A (preparation, properties and reactions alkaline earth metals with emphasis on Mg

and Ca -their compounds such as oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates,

chlorides and sulphates)

Group 3A( chemistry of Boron and its compounds — diborane)

Group 8A (preparation, properties and reactions inert gases with emphasis on chemistry of

Xenon)

Group 7A(halogen chemistry with special emphasis on chemistry of chlorine )

Study of nonmetals — C, S, N, P (especially oxides and oxyacids compounds of these

elements, in addition phosphines for P, ammonia for N) and O (peroxide and ozone), Si

(silicones and silicates) (allotropes of C, S, N should be covered)

Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, variable oxidation

states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and

calculation of spin-only magnetic moment;

Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans

and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination

compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral)

Metals and metallurgy: General methods involving chemical principles, General operation

stages involved in metallurgical operation, Metallurgy of p-block element (emphasis on Al),

Metallurgy of Fe-triad (Fe, Co, And Ni with more emphasis on Fe metallurgy), Metallurgy of

coinage metals (Cu, Ag with more emphasis on Cu)

• Organic Chemistry

Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules;

Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two

asymmetric centers, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple

organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds);

Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and hyperconjugation;

Keto-enol tautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple

compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on

physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity

and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides;

Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation,

structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series, physical properties

of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of

alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes

and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed

hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination);

Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation

of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes

with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen); Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.

Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions:

halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of o-, m-

and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.

Phenols: Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and

sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction. Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides:

rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution

reactions; Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium,

phosphorus halides, ZnC^/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and

ketones; Ethers:Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation,

reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro

reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition);

Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines:

basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds,

reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines,

Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction; Haloarenes:

nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding

Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).

Carbohydrates: Classification; mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation,

reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and

physical properties, some examples for separation of amino acid mixture using physical

properties.

4. Mathematics:

• Algebra:

Algebra of complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation,

properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, cube roots of unity,

geometric interpretations.

Quadratic equations with real coefficients, relations between roots and coefficients, formation

of quadratic equations with given roots, symmetric functions of roots.

Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic

means, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums

of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

Logarithms and their properties.

Permutations and combinations, Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of

binomial coefficients.

Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers, equality of matrices, addition, multiplication

by a scalar and product of matrices, transpose of a matrix, determinant of a square matrix of

order up to three, inverse of a square matrix of order up to three, properties of these matrix

operations, diagonal, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties, solutions

of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem,

independence of events, computation of probability of events using permutations and

combinations.

• Trigonometry: Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and

subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution

of trigonometric equations.

Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and

the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).

Analytical geometry:

• Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift

of origin.

Equation of a straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from

a line; Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the

angle between two lines, concurrency of lines; Centroid, orthocentre, incentre and

circumcentre of a triangle.

Equation of a circle in various forms, equations of tangent, normal and chord.

Parametric equations of a circle, intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle,

equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a

straight line.

Equations of a parabola, ellipse and hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices and

eccentricity, parametric equations, equations of tangent and normal.

Locus Problems.

• Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in

space, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane.

• Differential calculus: Real valued functions of a real variable, into, onto and one-to-one

functions, sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, composite functions,

absolute value, polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limit and continuity of a function, limit and continuity of the sum, difference, product and

quotient of two functions, L’Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions.

Even and odd functions, inverse of a function, continuity of composite functions, intermediate

value property of continuous functions. Derivative of a function, derivative of the sum,

difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule, derivatives of polynomial,

rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up to order two, geometrical interpretation of the

derivative, tangents and normals, increasing and decreasing functions, maximum and

minimum values of a function, Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem.

• Integral calculus: Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals

of standard functions, definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of

Integral Calculus.

Integration by parts, integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions,

application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves.

Formation of ordinary differential equations, solution of homogeneous differential equations,

separation of variables method, linear first order differential equations.

• Vectors: Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, dot and cross products, scalar triple

products and their geometrical interpretations.

5. Physics:

• General : Units and dimensions, dimensional analysis; least count, significant figures;

Methods of measurement (Direct, Indirect, Null, etc., ) and measurement of length, time,

mass, temperature, electrical potential difference, current and resistance.

Design of some simple experiments, Identification of independent, dependent and control

variables, Identification of sample size, range and interval; Identification of appropriate

measurement techniques and instruments.

Graphical representation, interpretation and analysis of data. Errors in the measurements

and error analysis.

• Mechanics: Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only), projectiles;

Uniform Circular motion; Relative velocity.

Newton’s laws of motion; Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference; Static and

dynamic friction; Kinetic and potential energy; Work and power; Conservation of linear

momentum and mechanical energy.

Systems of particles; Centre of mass and its motion; Impulse; Elastic and inelastic collisions.

Law of gravitation; Gravitational potential and field; Acceleration due to gravity; Motion of

planets and satellites in circular orbits; Escape velocity. Rigid body, moment of inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, moment of inertia of

uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes; Angular momentum, Torque; Conservation of

angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation; Rolling without

slipping of rings, cylinders and spheres. Equilibrium of rigid bodies; Collision of point masses

with rigid bodies.

Linear and angular simple harmonic motions.

Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus.

Pressure in a fluid; Pascal’s law; Buoyancy; Surface energy and surface tension, capillary rise;

Viscosity: Stoke’s and Poiseuille’s law, Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, equation of

continuity , Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Wave motion (plane waves only), longitudinal and transverse waves, superposition of waves.;

Progressive and stationary waves; Vibration of strings and air columns; Resonance; Beats;

Speed of sound in gases; Doppler effect (in sound).

• Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; Calorimetry, latent heat;

Heat conduction in one dimension; Elementary concepts of convection and radiation; Newton’s

law of cooling; Ideal gas laws; Specific heats (C_{V} and C_{P} for monoatomic and diatomic gases);

Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulus of gases; Equivalence of heat and work;

First and second law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases); Entropy.

Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers; Kirchhoffs law; Wien’s displacement

law, Stefan’s law.

• Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb’s law; Electric field and potential; Electrical potential

energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field;

Electric field lines; Flux of electric field; Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases. such

as, to find field due to infinitely long straight wire. uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and

uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

Capacitance: Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics; Capacitors in series and

parallel; Energy stored in a capacitor.

Electric current; Ohm’s law ; Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells.

Kirchhoffs laws and simple applications; Heating effect of current.

Biot- Savart’s law and Ampere’s law; Magnetic field near a current carrying straight wire,

along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid; Force on a moving charge

and on a current carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field.

Magnetic moment of a current loop; Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop;

Moving coil galvanometer, voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions.

Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law; Self and mutual inductance; RC,LR

and LC circuits with and a.c. Sources.

• Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light; Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical

surfaces, Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism; Thin lenses.; Combination of mirrors

and thin lenses; Magnification.

Wave nature of light: Huygen’s principle, interference limited to Young’s double slit

experiment. Elementary idea of diffraction — Rayleigh criterion, Elementary idea of

polarization — Brewster’s law and the law of Malus.

• Modern physics: Atomic nucleus; Alpha, beta and gamma radiations; Law of radioactive

decay; Decay constant; Half- life and mean life; Binding energy and its calculation; Fission

and fusion processes; Energy calculation in these processes.

Photoelectric effect; Bohr’s theory of hydrogen like atoms; Characteristic and continuous X-

rays, Mosele^s law; de Broglie wavelength of matter waves. Heisenberg’s uncertainty

principle.

**Tags: **nest syllabus, syllabus of nest exam

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