IFS Exam Syllabus
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural
resources, their sustainable management
and conservation. Physical and Social
environment as factors of crop distribution
and production. Climatic elements as
factors of crop growth, impact of changing
environment on cropping pattern as
indicators of environments. Environmental
pollution and associated hazards to crops,
animals, and humans.
Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic
zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding
and short-duration varieties on shifts in
cropping pattern. Concepts of multiple
cropping, multi-storey, relay and inter-
cropping, and their importance in relation
to food production. Package of practices
for production of important cereals, pulses,
oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and
fooder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi
seasons in different regions of the country.
Important features, scope and propagation
of various types of forestry plantations such
as extension, social forestry, agro-forestry
and natural forests.
Weeds, their characteristics,
dissemination and association with
various crops; their multiplications; cultural,
biological and chemical control of weeds.
Soil-physical, chemical and biological
properties. Processes and factors of soil
formation. Modern classification of Indian
soils, Mineral and organic constituents of
soils and their role in maintaining soil
productivity. Essential plant nutrients and
other beneficial elements in soils and
plants. Principles of soil fertility and its
evaluation for judicious fertiliser use,
integrated nutrient management. Losses
of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency
in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation
in soils. Fixation of phosphorus and
potassium in soils and the scope for their
efficient use. Problem soils and their
Soil conservation planning on watershed
basis, Erosion and run-off management
in hilly, foot hills and valley lands;
processes and factors affecting them. Dry
land agriculture and its problems.
Technology of stabilising agriculture
production in rain fed agriculture area.
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop
production, criteria for scheduling
irrigations, ways and means of reducing
run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip and
sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-
logged soils, quality of irrigation water,
effect of industrial effluents on soils and
Farm management, scope, important and
characteristics, farm planning. Optimum
resources use and budgeting. Economics
of different types of farming systems.
Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs
and outputs, price fluctuations and their
cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural
economy; types and systems of farming
and factors affecting them.
Agricultural extension, its importance and
role, methods of evaluation of extension
programmes, socio-economic survey and
status of big, small and marginal farmers
and landless agricultural labourers; farm
mechanization and its role in agricultural
production and rural employment. Training
programmes for extension workers; lab-
Cell Theory, cell structure, cell organelles
and their function, cell division, nucleic
acids-structure and function, gene
structure and function. Laws of heredity,
their significance in plant breeding.
Chromosome structure, chromosomal
aberrations, linkage and cross-over and
their significance in recombination
breeding. Polyploidy, euploids and an-
euploids. Mutation- micro and macro-and
their role in crop improvement. Variation,
components of variation. Heritability, sterility
and incompatibility, classification and their
application in crop improvement.
Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-
influenced and sex-limited characters.
History of plant breeding. Modes of
reproduction, selfing and crossing
techniques. Origin and evolution of crop
plants, centre of origin, law of homologous
series, crop genetic resources-
conservation and utilization. Application of
principles of plant breeding to the
improvement of major field crops. Pure-
line selection, pedigree, mass and
recurrent selections, combining ability, its
significance in plant breeding. Hybrid
vigour and its exploitation, backcross
method of breeding, breeding for disease
and pest resistance, role of interspecific
and intergeneric hybridization. Role of
biotechnology in plant breeding. Improved
varieties, hybrids, composites of various
Seed technology, its importance. Different
kinds of seeds and their seed production
and processing techniques. Role of public
and private sectors in seed production,
processing and marketing in India.
Physiology and its significance in
agriculture, Imbibition, surface tension,
diffusion and osmosis. Absorption and
translocation of water, transpiration and
water economy. Enzymes and plant
concepts and factors affecting the process,
aerobic and nonaerobic respiration; c, c
and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate,
protein and fat metabolism.
Growth and development; photoperiodism
and vernalization. Auxins, hormones and
other plant regulators and their
mechanism of action and importance in
agriculture. Physiology of seed
development and germination; dormancy.
Climatic requirements and cultivation of
major fruits, plants, vegetable crops and
flower plants; the package of practices and
their scientific basis. Handling and
marketing problems of fruit and
vegetables. Principal methods of
preservation of important fruits and
vegetable products, processing
techniques and equipment. Role of fruits
and vegetables in human nutrition.
Raising of ornamental plants and design
and layout of lawns and gardens.
Diseases and pests of field vegetables,
orchard and plantation crops of India.
Causes and classification of plant pests
and diseases. Principles of control of plant
pests and diseases. Biological control of
pests and diseases. Integrated pest and
disease management. Epidemiology and
forecasting. Pesticides, their formulations
and modes of action. Compatibility with
rhizobial inoculants. Microbial Toxins.
Storage pests and diseases of cereals and
pulses and their control.
Food production and consumption trends
in India. National and International food
policies. Production, procurement,
distribution and processing constraints.
Relation of food production to national
dietary pattern, major deficiencies of
calorie and protein.
Soil and Water Conservation: Scope of
soil and water conservation. Mechanics
and types of erosion, their causes.
Mechanics and types of erosion, their
causes. Rainfall, runoff and sedimentation
relationships and their measurement. Soil
erosion control measures – biological and
engineering including stream bank
protection-vegetative barriers, contour
bunds, contour trenches, contour stone
walls, contour ditches, terraces, outlets
and grassed waterways. Gully control
structures – temporary and permanent -
design of permanent soil conservation
structures such as chute, drop and drop
inlet spillways. Design of farm ponds and
percolation ponds. Principles of flood
control – flood routing. Watershed
Management – investigation, planning and
implementation – selection of priority
areas and water shed work plan, water
harvesting and moisture conservation.
Land development – levelling, estimation
of earth volumes and costing. Wind
Erosion process – design of shelter belts
and wind brakes and their management.
Forest (Conservation) Act.
Aerial Photography and Remote
Sensing: Basic characteristics of
photographic images, interpretation keys,
equipment for interpretation, imagery
interpretation for land use, geology soil and
Remote sensing – merits and demerits of
conventional and remote sensing
approaches. Types of satellite images,
fundamentals of satellite image
interpretation, techniques of visual and
digital interpretations for soil, water and
land use management. Use of GIS in
planning and development of watersheds,
forests including forest cover, water
Irrigation and Drainage: Sources of
water for irrigation. Planning and design
of minor irrigation projects. Techniques of
measuring soil moisture – laboratory and
in situ, soil – water plant relationships.
Water requirement of crops. Planning
conjunctive use of surface and ground
water. Measurement of irrigation water,
measuring devices – orifices, weirs and
flumes. Methods of irrigation – surface,
sprinkler and drip, fertigation. Irrigation
efficiencies and their estimation. Design
and construction of canals, field channels,
underground pipelines, head-gates,
diversion boxes and structures for road
Occurrence of ground water, hydraulics of
wells, types of wells (tube wells and open
wells) and their construction. Well
development and testing. Pumps-types,
selection and installation. Rehabilitation
of sick and failed wells.
Drainage causes of water logging and salt
problems. Methods of drainage – drainage
of irrigated and unirrigated lands, design
of surface, sub-surface and vertical
drainage systems. Improvement and
utilization of poor quality water.
Reclamation of saline and alkali soils.
Economics of irrigation and drainage
systems. Use of waste water for irrigation
- standards of waste water for sustained
irrigation, feasibility and economics.
Agricultural Structures: Site selection,
design and construction of farmstead -
farm house, cattle shed, dairy barn, poultry
shed, hog housing, machinery and
implement shed, storage structures for
food grains, feed and forage. Design and
construction of fences and farm roads.
Structures for plant environment – green
houses, poly houses and shade houses.
Common building materials used in
construction – timber, brick, stone, tiles,
concrete etc. and their properties. Water
supply, drainage and sanitation systems.
1. Farm power and machinery: Agricultural
mechanization and its scope. Sources of
farm power – animate and
construction and working of internal
combustion engines. Fuel, ignition,
lubrication, cooling and governing system
of IC engines. Different types of tractors
and power tillers. Power transmission,
ground drive, power take off (p.t.o.) and
control systems. Operation and
maintenance of farm machinery for primary
and secondary tillage. Traction theory.
Sowing transplanting and interculture
implements and tools. Plant protection
equipment – spraying and dusting.
Harvesting, threshing and combining
equipment. Machinery for earth moving and
land development – methods and cost
estimation. Ergonomics of man-machine
system. Machinery for horticulture and
agro-forestry, feeds and forages. Haulage
of agricultural and forest produce.
2. Agro-energy: Energy requirements of
agricultural operations and agro-
processing. Selection, installation, safety
and maintenance of electric motors for
agricultural applications. Solar (thermal
and photovoltic), wind and bio-gas energy
and their utilization in agriculture.
Gasification of biomass for running IC
engines and for electric power generation.
Energy efficient cooking stoves and
alternate cooking fuels. Distribution of
electricity for agricultural and agro-
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011 UPSC 6
3. Agricultural Process Engineering: Post
harvest technology of crops and its scope.
Engineering properties of agricultural
produces and by-products. Unit operations
cleaning grading, size reduction,
densification, concentration, drying/
dehydration, evaporation, filtration, freezing
and packaging of agricultural produces
and by-products. Material handling
equipment-belt and screw conveyors,
bucket elevators, their capacity and power
Processing of milk and dairy products -
homogenisation, cream separation,
pasteurisation, sterilization, spray and
roller drying, butter making, ice cream,
cheese and shrikhand manufacture.
Waste and by-product utilization rice husk,
rice bran, sugarcane bagasse, plant
residues and coir pith.
4. Instrumentation and computer
applications in Agricultural Engineering:
Electronic devices and their characteristics
rectifiers, amplifiers, oscillators, multi-
vibrators. Digital circuits-sequential and
combinational system. Application of
microprocessors in data acquisition and
control of agricultural engineering
processes-measurement systems for
level, flow, strain, force, torque, power,
pressure, vacuum and temperature.
Computer- introduction, input/output
devices, central processing unit, memory
devices, operating systems, processors,
keyboards and printers. Algorithms,
flowchart specification, programme
translation and problem analysis in
Agricultural Engineering. Multimedia and
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND
1. Animal Nutrition-Energy sources,
energy, metabolism and requirements for
maintenance and production of milk, meat,
eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as
sources of energy.
1.1 Trends in protein nutrition : sources of
protein metabolism and synthesis, protein
quantity and quality in relation to
requirements. Energy protein ratios in
1.2 Minerals in animal diet : Sources,
functions, requirements and their
relationship of the basic minerals nutrients
including trace elements.
1.3 Vitamins, Hormones and Growth
stimulating substances: Sources,
functions, requirements and inter-
relationship with minerals.
1.4 Advances in Ruminant Nutrition-Dairy
Cattle: Nutrients and their metabolism with
reference to milk production and its
composition. Nutrient requirements of
calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and
buffaloes. Limitations of various feeding
1.5 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-
Poultry-Nutrients their metabolism with
reference to poultry, meat and egg
production, Nutrients requirements and
feed formulation and broilers at different
1.6 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-
Swine-Nutrients and their metabolism with
special reference to growth and quality of
meat production, Nutrient requirement and
feed formulation for baby-growing and
1.7 Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition-A
critical review and evaluation of feeding
experiments, digestibility and balance
studies. Feeding standards and
measures of food energy. Nutrition
requirements for growth, maintenance and
production. Balanced rations.
2. Animal Physiology
2.1 Growth and Animal Production:
Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation,
growth curves, measures of growth,
factors affecting growth, conformation, body
composition, meat quality.
2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and
Digestion: Current status of hormonal
control of mammary development, milk
secretion and milk ejection. Male and
Female reproduction organ, their
components and function. Digestive
organs and their functions.
2.3 Environmental Physiology:
Physiological relations and their
regulation; mechanisms of adaption,
environmental factors and regulatory
mechanism involved in animal behaviour,
methods of controlling climatic stress.
2.4 Semen quality: Preservation and
Artificial insemination-Components of
semen, composition of spermatozoa,
chemical and physical properties of
ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen
in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting
semen production and quality
preservation, composition of diluents,
sperm concentration, transport of diluted
semen. Deep freezing techniques in cows,
sheep and goats, swine and poultry.
Detection of oestrus and time of
insemination for better conception.
3. Livestock Production and
3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming-
Comparison of dairy farming in India with
advanced countries. Dairying under fixed
farming and as a specialised farming,
economic dairy farming, Starting of a dairy
farm. Capital and land requirement,
organisation of the dairy farm.
Procurement of goods; opportunities in
dairy farming, factors determining the
efficiency of dairy animal, Herd recording,
budgeting cost of milk production; pricing
policy; Personnel Management.
Developing Practical and Economic ration
for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout
the year, field and fodder requirements of
Dairy Farm, Feeding regimes for day and
young stock and bulls, heifers and
breeding animals, new trends in feeding
young and adult stock; feeding records.
3.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool
production: Development of practical and
economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs,
rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens,
fodder, feeding regimens for young and
mature stock. New trends in enhancing
production and management. Capital and
land requirements and socio-economic
3.3 Feeding and management of animals
under drought, flood and other natural
4. Genetics and Animal Breeding: Mitosis
and Meiosis; Mendelian inheritance;
deviations to Mendelian genetics;
Expression of genes; Linkage and
crossing over; Sex determination, sex
influenced and sex limited characters;
Blood groups and polymorphism;
Chromosome abberations; Gene and its
structure; DNA as a genetic material;
Genetic code and protein synthesis;
Recombinant DNA technology, Mutations,
types of mutations, methods for detecting
mutations and mutation rate.
4.1 Population Genetics Applied to Animal
Breeding : Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits;
Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs.
individual; Gene and genotypic frequency;
Forces changing gene frequency; Random
drift and small populations; Theory of path
coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of
estimating inbreeding coefficient; systems
of inbreeding; Effective population size;
Breeding value, estimation of breeding
value, dominance and epistemic deviation;
partitioning of variation; Genotype X
environment correlation and genotype X
environment interaction; Role of multiple
measurements; Resemblance between
4.2 Breeding Systems : Heritability,
repeatability and genetic and phenotypic
correlations, their methods of estimation
and precision of estimates; Aids to
selection and their relative merits;
individuals, pedigree, family and within
family selection; Progeny testing; Methods
of selection; Construction of selection
indices and their uses; Comparative
evaluation of genetic gains through various
selection methods; Indirect selection and
Correlated response; Inbreeding,
upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis
of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for
commercial production; Selection for
general and specific combining ability;
Breeding for threshold character.
1. Health and Hygiene
1.1 Histology and Histological
classification of stains used in biological
work-principles of staining tissues-
mordants-progressive & regressive
stains-differential staining of cytoplasmic
and connective tissue elements-Methods
of preparation and processing of tissues-
celloidin embedding-Freezing microtomy-
Microscopy-Bright field microscope and
electron microscope. Cytology-structure of
cell, organells & inclusions; cell division-
cell types-Tissues and their classification-
embryonic and adult tissues-Comparative
histology of organs:- vascular, nervous,
digestive, respiratory, musculo-skeletal
and urogenital systems-Endocrine
1.2 Embryology : Embryology of
vertebrates with special reference to aves
and domestic mammals-gametogenesis-
fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes
& placentation-types of placenta in
domestic mammals -Teratology-twin &
derivatives-endodermal, mesodermal and
1.3 Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy:
Paranasal sinuses of OX-surface anatomy
of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of
infra-orbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar,
mental & coronal nerve block-regional
anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudental
nerve, median, ulnar & raidal nerves-tibial,
fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-
structures involved in epidural
anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-
surface anatomy of visceral organs of
thoracic, abdominal and plevic cavities-
comparative features of locomotor
apparatus & their application in the
biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl: Musculo-skeletal
system-functional anatomy in relation to
respiration and flying, digestion and egg
1.5 Physiology of blood and its circulation,
respiration; excretion, Endocrine glands
in health and disease:
1.5.1 Blood constituents : Properties and
functions-blood cell formation-
Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry-
plasma proteins production, classification
and properties; coagulation of blood;
blood groups-Blood volume-plasma
expanders-Buffer systems in blood,
Biochemical tests and their significance
in disease diagnosis.
1.5.2 Circulation : Physiology of heart,
cardiac cycle-heart sounds, heart beat,
electrocardiograms, Work and efficiency of
heart-effect of ions on heart function-
metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and
chemical regulation of heart, effect of
temperature and stress on heart, blood
pressure and hypertension Osmotic
regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor
regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary &
pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier-
Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds.
1.5.3 Respiration : Mechanism of
respiration, Transport and exchange of
gases-neural control of respiration-
1.5.4 Excretion : Structure and function of
kidney-formation of urinemethods of
studying renal function-renal regulation of
acid-base balance; physiological
constituents of urine-renal failure-passive
venous congestion-Urinary recreation in
chicken-Sweat glands and their function.
Biochemical tests for urinary dysfunction.
1.5.5 Endocrine glands: Functional
disorders, their symptoms and diagnosis.
Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and
control of secretion-hormonal receptors-
classification and function.
1.6 General knowledge of pharmacology
and therapeutics of drugs: Cellular level
of pharmacodynamics and pharma-
cokinetics-Drugs acting on fluids and
electrolyte balance-drugs acting on
Autonomic nervous system-Modern
concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative
and principles of chemotherapy in
microbial injections-use of hormones in
therapeutics-chemotherapy of parasitic
infections-Drug and economic persons in
the Edible tissues of animals-
chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.
1.7 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to
water, air and habitation: Assessment of
pollution of water, air and soil-importance
of climate in animal health-effect of
environment on animal function and
industrialisation and animal agriculture-
animal housing requirements for specific
categories of domestic animals viz.
pregnant cows & sows, milking cows,
broiler birds-stress, strain & productivity in
relation to animal habitation.
2. Animal Diseases:
2.1 Pathogenesis, symptoms, post-
mortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of
infection diseases of cattle, pigs and
poultry, horses, sheep and goats.
2.2 Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis,
treatment of production diseases of cattle,
pig and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic
animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-
specific condition like impaction, Bloat,
Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration,
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of
2.6 Principles and methods of
immunisation of animals against specific
diseases-hard immunity-disease free
zones-’Zero’ disease concept-
2.7 Anaesthesia-local, regional and
Symptoms and surgical interference in
fractures and dislocation, Hernia, choking,
2.8 Disease investigation techniques-
Materials for laboratory investigation -
Establishment Animal Health Centres-
Disease free zone.
3. Veterinary public Health :
3.1 Zoonoses: Classification, definition;
role of animals and birds in prevalence
and transmission of zoonotic diseases-
occupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2 Epidemiology: Principles, definition of
epidemiological terms, application of
epidemiological measures in the study of
diseases and disease control,
Epidemiological features of air, water and
food borne infections.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence: Rules and
Regulations for improvement of animal
quality and prevention of animal diseases-
state and control Rules for prevention of
animal and animal product borne
diseases-S.P.C.A.- veterolegal cases-
certificates-Materials and Methods of
collection of samples for veterolegal
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology:
4.1 Milk Technology: Organization of rural
milk procurement, collection and transport
of raw milk.
Quality, testing and grading raw milk,
Quality storage grades of whole milk,
Skimmed milk and cream.
Processing, packaging, storing,
distributing, marketing defects and their
control and nutritive properties of the
Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double
toned, sterilized, homogenized,
reconstituted, recombined and flavoured
milks. Preparation of cultured milks,
cultures and their management, youghurt,
Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of
flavoured and sterlized milks; Legal
standards, Sanitation requirement for
clean and safe milk and for the milk plant
4.2 Milk Products Technology: Selection
of raw materials, assembling, production,
processing, storing, distributing and
marketing milk products such as Butter,
Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese;
Condensed, evaporated, dried milk and
baby food, Ice cream and Kulfi; by products;
whey products, butter milk, lactose and
casein, Testing Grading, judging milk
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011
products-BIS and Agmark specifications,
legal standards, quality control nutritive
properties, Packaging, processing and
operational control Costs.
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology:
5.1 Meat Hygiene:
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management
of food animals, stunning, slaughter and
dressing operations; abattoir
requirements and designs; Meat
inspection procedures and judgement of
carcass meat cuts-drading of carcass
meat cuts-duties and functions of
Veterinarians in Wholesome meat
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling
production of meat-spoilage of meat and
control measures-Post slaughter
physicochemical changes in meat and
factors that influence them quality
improvement methods-Adulteration of
meat and defection-Regulatory provisions
in Meat trade and industry.
5.2 Meat Technology :
5.2.1 Physical and chemical character-
istics of meat-meat emulsions-methods
of preservation of meat-curing, canning,
irradiation, packaging of meat and meat
products; meat products and formulations.
5.3 By-products: Slaughter house by
products and their utilisation-Edible and
inedible by-products-social and economic
implications of proper utilisation of
slaughter house by-products-Organ
products for food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4 Poultry Products Technology:
Chemical composition and nutritive value
of poultry meat, pre slaughter care and
management. Slaughtering techniques,
inspection, preservation of poultry meat
and products. Legal and BIS standards.
Structure, composition and nutritive value
of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation
and maintenance. Marketing of poultry
meat, eggs and products.
5.5 Rabbit/Fur animal farming: Care and
management of rabbit meat production.
Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and
recycling of waste by-products. Grading of
6. Extension: Basic philosophy, objectives,
concept and principles of extension.
Different Methods adopted to educate
farmers under rural conditions. Generation
of technology, its transfer and feedback.
Problems of constraints in transfer of
technology. Animal husbandry
programmes for rural development.
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology:
Viruses, bacteria and plasmids-structure
and reproduction. General account of
infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications
of microbiology in agriculture, industry,
medicine and pollution control in air, soil
Important plant diseases caused by
viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and
nematodes. Mode of infection and
dissemination. Molecular basis of infection
and disease resistance/defence.
Physiology of parasitism and control
measures. Fungal toxins.
2. Cryptogams: Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes,
Pteridophytes-structure and reproduction
from evolutionary viewpoint. Distribution of
Cryptogams in India and their economic
3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms:
Concept of Progymonosperms.
Classification and distribution of
Gymnosperms. Salient features of
Cycadales, Conferrals and Gnetales, their
structures and reproduction. General
account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales
Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy,
embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
Comparative account of various systems
of Angiosperm Classification. Study of
Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruci-
ferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae,
Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae,
Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite),
Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae
(Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae,
Stomata and their types. Anomalous
secondary growth, Anatomy of C3 and C4
Development of male and female
gametophytes, pollination, fertilization.
Endosperm-its development and function.
Patterns of embryo development.
Polymbryony, apoxmis, Applications of
4. Plant Utility and Exploitation :
Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres
of origin. Plants as sources for food, fooder,
fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics,
insecticides, timber, gums, resins and
Latex, cellulose Starch and their products.
Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in
Indian context. Energy plantation. Botanical
Gardens and Herbaria.
5. Morphogenesis: Totipotency, polarity,
symmetry and differentiation, Cell, tissue,
organ and protoplast culture, Somatic
hybrids and Cybrids.
1. Cell Biology: Techniques of Cell
Biology, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells-
structural and ultrastructural details.
Structure and function of extracellular
matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes-
cell adhesion, membrane transport and
vesicular transport-structure and function
of cell organelles (chloroplasts,
mitochondria, ER, ribosome’s,
endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes,
hydrogenosome). Nucleus, nucleolus,
nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and
nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell
receptors. Signal transduction (G-1
proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meiosis;
molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical
and structural variations in chromosomes
and their significance. Study of polytene,
lampbrush and B-chromosomes-
structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and
Evolution: Development of genetics, and
gene versus allele concepts
(Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics
and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing
over-methods of gene mapping including
molecular maps (idea of mapping
function). Sex chromosomes and sexlinked
inheritance, sex determination and
molecular basis of sex differentiation.
Mutation (biochemical and molecular
basis). Cytoplasmic inheritance and
cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of
male sterility). Prions and prion
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids
and protines. Genetic code and regulation
of gene expression. Multigene families.
Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism
and theories. Role of RNA in origin and
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Bio-
statistics: Methods of plant breeding-
introduction, selection and hybridisation
(pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk
method). Male sterility and heterosis
breeding. Use of apomixes in plant
breeding. Micropropagation and genetic
engineering methods of transfer of genes
and transgenic crops; development and
use of molecular markers in plant breeding.
Standard deviation and coefficient of variation
(CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and
chi-square tests). Probability and
distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson
distributions). Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water
relations, Mineral nutrition and ion
transport, mineral deficiencies.
photophosphory-lation and carbon
pathways including C pathway
(photorespiration), C, C and CAM
pathways. Respiration (anaerobic and
aerobic, including fermentation)-electron
transport chain and oxidative
phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory
and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and
nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes,
coenzymes, energy transfer and energy
conservation. Importance of secondary
metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors
(plastidial pigments and phytochrome).
Photoperiodism and flowering,
vernalization, senescence. Growth
substances-their chemical nature, role
and applications in agri-horticulture,
growth indices, growth movements. Stress
physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal). Fruit
and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage
and germination of seed. Fruit ripening -
its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography:
Ecological factors, Concepts and
dynamics of community. Plant succession.
Concepts of biosphere, Ecosystems and
their conservation. Pollution and its control
Forest types of India – afforestation,
deforestation and social forestry.
Endangered plants, endemism and Red
Data Books. Biodiversity, Convention of
Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and
intellectual Property Rights.
Biogeochemical cells, Global warming.
1. Atomic Structure :
Quantum theory, Heisenberg’s uncertainity
principle, Schorodinger wave equation
(time independent). Interpretation of wave
function, particle in one-dimensional box,
quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave
functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical Bonding :
Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic
compounds, factors affecting stability of
ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-
haber cycle; covalent bond and its general
characteristics, polarities of bonds in
molecules and their dipole moments.
Valence bond theory, concept of resonance
and resonance energy. Molecular orbital
theory (LCAO method); bonding in homo-
nuclear molecules; H2+, H2 to Ne 2 NO, CO,
HF, CN, CN-, BeH2 and CO2. Comparison
of valence bond and molecular orbital
theories, bond order, bond strength and
3. Solid State :
Forms of solids, law of constancy of
interfacial angles, crystal systems and
crystal classes (crystallographic groups).
Designation of crystal faces, lattice
structures and unit cell. Laws of rational
indices. Bragg’s law. X-ray diffraction by
crystals. Close packing, radious ratio rules,
calculation of some limiting radius ration
values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl,
CaF2, Cdl2 and rutile. Imperfections in
crystals, stoichiometric and non-
stoichiometric defects, impurity defects,
semi-conductors, Elementary study of
4. The gaseous state :
Equation of state for real gases,
intermolecular interactions, liquification of
gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell’s
distribution of speeds, intermolecular
collisions, collisions on the wall and
5. Thermodynamics and statistical
Thermodynamic systems, states and
processes, work, heat and internal energy;
first law of thermodynamics, work done on
the systems and heat absorbed in different
types of processes; calorimetry, energy
and enthalpy changes in various
processes and their temperature
Second law of thermodynamics; entropy
as a state function, entropy changes in
various process, entropy-reversibility and
irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria
for equilibrium, relation between
equilibrium constant and thermodynamic
quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third
law of thermodynamics.
Micro and macro states; canonical
ensemble and canonical partition function;
electronic, rotational and vibrational
partition functions and thermodynamic
quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal
6. Phase equilibria and solutions :
Phase equilibria in pure substances;
Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase
diagram for a pure substance; phase
equilibria in binary systems, partially
miscible liquids-upper and lower critical
solution temperatures; partial molar
quantities, their significance and
determination; excess thermodynamic
functions and their determination.
7. Electrochemistry :
Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes
and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various
equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells;
electrochemical series, measurement of
e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells
Processes at electrodes; double layer at
the interface; rate of charge transfer,
current density; over-potential; electro-
polarography, ampero-metry, cyclic-
voltametry, ion selective electrodes and
8. Chemical Kinetics :
Concentration dependence of rate of
reaction; defferential and integral rate
equations for zeroth, first, second and
fractional order reactions. Rate equations
involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and
chain reactions; effect of temperature and
pressure on rate constant. Study of fast
reactions by stop-flow and relaxation
methods, Collisions and transition state
9. Photochemistry :
Absorption of light; decay of excited state
by different routes; photochemical
reactions between hydrogen and halogens
and their quantum yields.
10. Surface phenomena and catalysis :
Adsorption from gases and solutions on
solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms-
Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms;
determination of surface area,
characteristics and mechanism of reaction
on heterogeneous catalysts.
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry :
Metal ions in biological systems and their
role in ion-transport across the
membranes (molecular mechanism),
ionophores, photosynthesis – PSI, PSII;
nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins,
cytochromes and ferredoxins.
12. Coordination chemistry :
(a) Electronic configurations; introduction
of theories of bonding in transition metal
complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal
field theory and its modifications;
applications of theories in the explanation
of magnetism and electronic spactra of
(b) Isomerism in coordination
compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of
coordination compounds; stereochemistry
of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination
numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear
complexes; trans effect and its theories;
kinetics of substitution reactions in square-
planer complexes; thermodynamic and
kinetic stability of complexes.
(c) Synthesis and structures of metal
carbonyls; carobxylate anions, cabonyl
hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
(d) Complexes with aromatic systems,
synthesis, structure and bonding in metal
olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and
cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative
unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions,
insertion reactions, fluxional molecules
and their characterization. Compounds
with metal-metal bonds and metal atom
13. General chemistry of ‘f block
Lanthanides and actinides; separation,
oxidation states, magnetic and spectral
properties; lanthanide contraction.
14. Non-Aqueous Solvents :
Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2SO4
Failure of solvent system concept,
coordination model of non-aqueous
solvents, Some highly acidic media, fluoro-
sulphuric acid and super acids.
1. Delocalised covalent bonding:
Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes,
azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes,
2 (a) Reaction mechanisms: General
methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of
study of mechanism or organic reactions
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011 UPSC 8
illustrated by examples-use of isotopes,
cross-over experiment, intermediate
trapping, stereochemistry; energy
diagrams of simple organic reactions-
transition states and intermediates; energy
of activation; thermodynamic control and
kinetic control of reactions.
(b) Reactive intermediates: Generation,
geometry, stability and reactions of
carbonium and carbonium ions,
carbanions, free radicals, carbenes,
benzynes and niternes.
(c) Substitution reactions: SN1, SN2, SNi,
SN1′, SN2′, SNi’ and SRN1 mechanisms;
neighbouring group participation;
electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of
aromatic compound including simple
heterocyclic compounds-pyrrole, furan
(d) Elimination reactions: E1, E2 and E1cb
mechanism; orientation in E2 reactions-
Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn
elimination-acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev
and Cope eliminations.
(e) Addition reactions: Electrophilic
addition to C-C and C=C; nucleophilic
addition to C=O, C-N, conjugated olefins
(f) Rearrangements: Pinacol-pinacolune,
Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer-Villiger,
Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens
and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.
3. Pericyclic reactions: Classification and
examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules-
electrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition
reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic
shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
4. Chemistry and mechanism of
reactions: Aldol condensation (including
directed aldol condensation), Claisen
condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin,
Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen,
Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter
reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin
condensations; Fischer indole synthesis,
Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski,
Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and
5. Polymeric Systems :
(a) Physical Chemistry of polymers:
Polymer solutions and their
thermodynamic properties; number and
weight average molecular weights of
polymers, Determination of molecular
weights by sedimentation, light scattering,
osmotic pressure, viscosity and group
(b) Preparation and properties of
polymers: Organic polymers-polyethylene,
polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon,
nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural
rubber. Inorganic polymers-phosphonitrilic
halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.
(c) Biopolymers: Basic bonding in
proteins, DNA and RNA.
6. Synthetic uses of reagents: OsO4, HIO4,
Cro3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-
Liquid NH3, LiA1 H4 NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.
7. Photochemist: Photochemical reactions
of simple organic compounds, excited and
ground states, singlet and triplet states,
Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
8. Principles of spectroscopy and
applications in structure elucidation :
a) Rotational spectra- Diatomic
molecules; isotopic substitution and
b) Vibrational spectra- Diatomic
molecules, linear triatomic molecules,
specific frequencies of functional groups
in polyatomic molecules.
c) Electronic spectra- Singlet and triplet
states. N->n* and n->n* transitions;
application to conjugated double bonds
and conjugated carbonyls-Woodward-
d) Nuclear magnetic resonance:
Isochronous and anisochronous protons;
chemical shift and coupling constant;
Application of H1 NMR to simple organic
e) Mass spectra: Parent peak, base peak,
daughter peak, matastable peak,
fragmentation of simple organic
molecules; a cleavage, Mc-Latterly
f) Electron spin resonance: Inorganic
complexes and free radicals.
a) Fluid and Particle Dynamics :
Viscosity of fluids. Laminar and turbulent
flows. Equation of continuity and Navier-
Strokes equation-Bernoulli’s theorem.
Flow meters. Fluid drag and pressure drop
due to friction, Reynold’s Number and
friction factor-effect of pipe roughness.
Economic pipe diameter. Pumps, water,
air/stream jet ejectors, compressors,
blowers and fans. agitation and mixing of
liquids, Mixing of solids and pastes.
Crushing and Grinding Principles and
equipment. Rittinger’s and Bond’s laws.
Filtration and filtration equipment. Fluid-
particle mechanics – free and hindered
setting. Fluidisation and minimum
fluidisation velocity, concepts of
compressible and incompressible flow.
Transport of solids.
b) Mass Transfer :
Molecular diffusion coefficients, First and
second law and diffusion, mass transfer
coefficients, film and penetration theories
of mass transfer. Distillation, simple
distillation, relative volatility, fractional
distillation, plate and packed columns for
distillation. Calculation of theoretical
number of plates. Liquid-liquid equilibria.
Extraction – theory and practice; design of
gas-absorption columns. Drying,
Crystallisation. Design of equipment.
c) Heat Transfer :
Conduction, thermal conductivity, extended
surface heat transfer.
Convection – free and forced. Heat transfer
coefficients – Nusselt Number. LMTD and
effectiveness. NTU methods for the design
of Double Pipe and Shell & Tube Heat
Exchangers. Analogy between heat and
momentum transfer, Boiling and
condensation heat transfer, Single and
multiple-effect evaporators. Radiation -
Stefan-Boltzman Law, emissivity and
absorptivity. Calculation of heat load of a
furnace. Solar heaters.
Section – B
d) Novel Separation Processes :
Equilibrium separation processesion-
exchange, osmosis, electro-dialysis,
reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration and other
membrane processes. Molecular
distillation. Super critical fluid extraction.
e) Process Equipment design: Factors
affecting vessel design criteria Cost
considerations, Design of storage
vessels-vertical, horizontal spherical,
underground tanks for atmospheric and
higher pressure. Design of closures flat
and eliptical head. Design of supports,
Materials of construction-characteristics
f) Process Dynamics and Control:
Measuring instruments for process
variables like level, pressure, flow,
temperature pH and concentration with
indication in visual/pneumatic/analog/
digital signal forms. Control variable,
manipulative variable and load variables.
Linear control theory-Laplace, transforms.
PID controllers. Block diagram
representation, Transient and frequency
response, stability of closed loop system.
Advanced control strategies. Computer
based process control.
(a) Material and Energy Balances :
Material and energy balance calculations
in processes with recycle/ bypass/purge.
Combustion of solid/liquid/gaseous fuels,
stoichiometric relationships and excess
air requirements. Adiabatic flame
(b) Chemical Engineering Thermody-
Laws of thermodynamics. PVT relationship
for pure components and mixtures. Energy
functions and inter-relationships-Maxwell’s
relations, Fugacity, activity and chemical
potential. Vapour-liquid equilibria, for ideal/
non-ideal, single and multi component
systems. Criteria for chemical reaction
equilibrium, equilibrium constant and
equilibrium conversions, Thermodynamic
cycles-refrigeration and power.
(c) Chemical Reaction Engineering :
Batch reactors-kinetics of homogeneous
reactions and interpretation of kinetic data.
Ideal flow reactors-CSTR, plug flow
reactors and their performance equations.
Temperature effects and run-away
reactions. Heterogeneous reactions-
catalytic and non-catalytic and gas-solid
and gas-liquid reactions. Intrinsic kinetics
and global rate concept. Importance of
interphase and intraparticle mass transfer
on performance. Effective-ness factor.
Isothermal and non-isothermal reactors
and reactor stability.
(d) Chemical Technology :
Natural organic products-Wood and wood-
based chemicals, pulp and paper, Agro-
industries-sugar, Edible oils extraction
(including tree based seeds), Soaps and
detergents, Essential oils- Biomass
gasification (including biogas). Coal and
coal chemical, Petroleum and Natural gas-
Petroleum refining (Atmospheric
(LDPE/HDPE/LLDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride,
Polystyrene. Ammonia manufacture.
Cement and lime industries. Paints and
varnishes. Glass and ceramics.
Fermentation-alcohol and antibiotics.
(e) Environmental Engineering and
Ecology and Environment. Sources of
pollutants in air and water. Green house
effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rain.
Micrometeorology and dispersion of
pollutants in environment. Measurement
techniques of pollutant levels and their
control strategies. Solid wastes, their
hazards and their disposal techniques.
Design and performance analysis of
pollution control equipment. Fire and
explosion hazards rating – HAZOP and
HAZAN. Emergency planning, disaster
management. Environmental legislations-
water, air environment protection Acts.
Forest (Conservation) Act.
(f) Process Engineering Economics :
Fixed and working capital requirement for
a process industry and estimation
methods. Cost estimation and comparison
of alternatives. Net present value by
discounted cash flow. Pay back analysis.
IRR, Depreciation, taxes and insurance.
Break-even point analysis. Project
scheduling- PERT and CPM. Profit and
loss account, balance sheet and financial
statement. Plant location and plant layout
ENGINEERING MECHANICS, STRENGTH
OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING MECHANICS :
Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors,
Concept of Force, Concept of particle and
rigid body. Concurrent, Non-Concurrent
and parallel forces in a plane, moment of
force and Varignon’s theorem, free body
diagram, conditions of equilibrium,
Principle of virtual work, equivalent force
First and Second Moment of area, Mass
moment of Inertia.
Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings.
Kinematics and Kinetics.
Kinematics in Cartesian and Polar Co-
ordinates, motion under uniform and non-
uniform acceleration, motion under gravity.
Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy
principles, D’Alembert’s Principle,
Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid
bodies, simple harmonic motion,
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS:
Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants,
axially loaded compression members,
Shear force and bending moment, theory
of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution
across cross sections, Beams of uniform
strength, Leaf Spring. Strain Energy in direct
stress, bending & shear.
Deflection of beams: Mecaulay’s method,
Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate
beam method, unit load method, Torsion
of Shafts, Transmission of power, close
coiled helical springs, Elastic stability of
columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant
formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains
in two dimensions, Mohr’s Circle, Theories
of Elastic Failure, Thin and Thick cylinder;
Stresses due to internal and external
pressure- Lame’s equations.
Castiglianio’s theroems I and II, Unit load
method of consistent deformation applied
to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-
deflection, moment distribution, Kani’s
method of analysis and column Analogy
method applied to indeterminate beams
and rigid frames.
Rolling loads and influences lines:
Influences lines for Shear Force and
Bending moment at a section of beam.
Criteria for maximum shear force and
bending Moment in beams traversed by a
system of moving loads. Influences lines
for simply supported plane pin jointed
Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed
arches, rib shortening and temperature
effects, influence lines in arches.
Matrix methods of analysis: Force method
and displacement method of analysis of
indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Plastic Analysis of beams and frames:
Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis,
statical method, Mechanism method.
Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of
inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral
Axis and Principle axes, calculation of
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES: STEEL,
CONCRETE AND MASONRY
STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN :
Structural Steel: Factors of safety and load
factors, Rivetted, bolted and welded joints
and connections. Design of tension and
compression member, beams of built up
section, rivetted and welded plate girders,
gantry girders, stancheons with battens
and lacings, slab and gussetted column
bases. Design of highway and railway
bridges: Through and deck type plate
girder, Warren girder, Pratt truss.
DESIGN OF CONCRETE AND MASONRY
Concept of mix design, Reinforces
Concrete: Working Stress and Limit State
method of design-recommendations of
I.S. codes, design of one way and two way
slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and
continuous beams of rectangular, T and L
sections. Compression members under
direct load with or without eccentricity,
Isolated and combined footings.
Cantilever and counterfort type retaining
Water tanks: Design requirements for
rectangular and circular tanks resting on
ground. Prestressed concrete: Methods
and systems of prestressing, anchorages,
analysis and disign of sections for flexure
based on working stress, loss of
Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes
Design of masonry retaining walls.
FLUID MECHANICS, OPEN CHANNEL
FLOW AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties and their
role in fluid motion, fluid statics including
forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow:
Velocity and accelerations, stream lines,
equation of continuity, irrotational and
rotational flow, velocity potential and stream
functions, flownet, methods of drawing
flownet, sources and sinks, flow separation,
free and forced vortices.
Control volume equation, continuity,
momentum, energy and moment of
momentum equations from control volume
equation, Navier-Strokes equation, Euler’s
equation of motion, application to fluid flow
problems, pipe flow, plane, curved,
stationary and moving vanes, sluice gates,
weirs, orifice meters and Venturi meters.
Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:
Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011
parameters, similitude theory, model laws,
undistorted and distorted models.
Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between
parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow
Boundary Layer: Laminar and turbulent
boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub-
layer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag
Turbulent flow through pipes:
Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity
distribution and variation of pipe friction
factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy
line, siphons, expansion and contractions
in pipes, pipe networks, water hammer in
pipes and surge tanks.
Open Channel Flow: Uniform and non-
uniform flows, momentum and energy
correction factors. Specific energy and
specific force, critical depth, resistance
equations and variation of roughness
coefficient, rapidly varied flow, flow in
contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic
jump and its applications surges and
waves, gradually varied flow, classification
of surface profiles, control section, step
method of integration of varied flow
equation, moving surges and hydraulic
HYDRAULIC MACHINES AND
Centrifugal pumps – Types,
characteristics, Net positive Suction Height
(NPSH), specific speed, Pumps in
Reciprocating pumps, Air vessels,
Hydraulic ram, efficiency parameters,
Rotary and positive displacement pumps,
diaphragm and jet pumps.
Hydraulic turbines, types classification,
Choice of turbines, performance
parameters, controls, characteristics,
Principles of hydropower development.
Type, layouts and Component works, surge
tanks, types and choice. Flow duration
curves and dependable flow. Storage an
pondage, Pumped storage plants. Special
features of mini, micro-hydel plants.
GEO TECHNICAL ENGINEERING :
Types of soil, phase relationships,
consistency limits particles size
distribution, classifications of soil,
structure and clay mineralogy.
Capillary water and structural water,
effectives trees and pore water pressure,
Darcy’s Law, factors affecting permeability,
determination of permeability, permeability
of stratified soil deposits.
Seepage pressure, quick sand condition,
compressibility and consoli-dation,
Terzaghi’s theory of one dimensional
consolidation, consolidation test.
Compaction of soil, field control of
compaction. Total stress and effective
stress parameters, pore pressure
Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb
failure theory, Shear tests.
Earth pressure at rest, active and passive
pressure, Rankin’s theory, Coulomb’s
wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining
wall, sheetpile walls, Braced excavation.
Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other
important theories, net and gross bearing
Immediate and consolidation settlement.
Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective
Stress methods, Conventional methods of
slices, stability number.
Subsurface exploration, methods of
boring, sampling, penetration tests,
pressure meter tests.
Essential features of foundation, types of
foundation, design criteria, choice of type
of foundation, stress distribution in soils,
Boussinessq’s theory, Newmarks’ chart,
pressure bulb, contact pressure,
applicability of different bearing capacity
theories, evaluation of bearing capacity
from field tests, allowable bearing capacity,
Settlement analysis, allowable settlement.
Proportioning of footing, isolated and
combined footings, rafts, buoyancy rafts,
Pile foundation, types of piles, piles
capacity, static and dynamic analysis,
design of pile groups, pile load test,
settlement of piles, lateral capacity.
Foundation for Bridges. Ground
sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil
EQUIPMENT, PLANNING AND
1. Construction Technology:
Physical properties of construction
materials: Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime,
Cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime concrete
and Cement concrete, Properties of freshly
mixed and hardened concrete, flooring
Tiles, use of ferro-cement, fibre-reinforced
and polymer concrete, high strength
concrete and light weight concrete. Timber:
Properties and uses; defects in timber;
seasoning and preservation of timber,
Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing
materials, termite proofing, Materials for
Low cost housing.
Building components and their functions;
Brick masonry: Bonds, jointing, Stone
masonry, Design of Brick masonry walls
as per I.S. codes, factors of safety,
serviceability and strength requirements;
plastering, pointing. Types of Floors &
Roofs, Ventilators, Repairs in buildings.
Functional planning of building: Building
orientation, circulation, grouping of areas,
privacy concept and design of energy
efficient building; provisions of National
Building estimates and specifications;
Cost of works; valuation.
2. Construction Equipment :
Standard and special types of equipment,
Preventive maintenance and repair, factors
affecting the selection of equipment,
economical life, time and motion study,
capital and maintenance cost.
Concreting equipments : Weigh batcher,
mixer, vibration, batching plant, Concrete
Earth-work equipment : Power shovel hoe,
bulldozer, dumper, trailors, and tractors,
rollers, sheep foot roller.
3. Construction Planning and
Management : Construction activity,
schedules, job layout, bar charts,
organization of contracting firms, project
control and supervision. Cost reduction
New-work analysis: CPM and
PERT analysis, Float times, cashing of
activities, contraction of network for cost
optimization, up dating, cost analysis and
Elements of Engineering Economics,
methods of appraisal, present worth,
annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental
analysis. Economy of scale and size.
Choosing between alternatives including
levels of investments. Project profitability.
SURVEY AND TRANSPORTATION
Survey : Common methods of distance
and angle measurements, plane table
survey, levelling traverse survey,
triangulation survey, corrections, and
adjustments, contouring, topographical
map. Surveying instruments for above
purposes Techeometry. Circular and
transition curves, Principles of
Railways: Permanent way, sleepers, rail
fastenings, ballast, points and crossings,
design of turn outs, stations and yards,
turn-tables, signals, and interlocking, level-
crossing. Construction and maintenance
of permanent ways: Superelevlation, creep
of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance,
tractive effort, relaying of track.
Highway Engineering: Principles of
highway planning, Highway alignments,
Geometrical design: Cross section,
camber, superelevation, horizontal and
vertical curves. Classification of roads: low
cost roads, flexible pavements, rigid
pavements. Design of payments and their
construction, evaluation of pavement
failure and strengthening.
Drainage of roads: Surface and sub-
Traffic Engineering : Forecasting
techniques, origin and destination survey,
highway capacity, Channelised and
unchannelised intersections, rotary design
elements, markings, sign, signals, street
lighting; Traffic surveys, Principle of
HYDROLOGY, WATER RESOURCES AND
Hydrology: Hydrological cycle, precipitation,
evaporation, transpiration, depression
storage, infiltration, overland flow,
hydrograph, flood frequency analysis, flood
estimation, flood routing through a
reservoir, channel flow routing-Muskingam
Ground water flow: Specific yield,
storage coefficient of permeability,
confined and unconfined aquifers,
aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well
under confined and unconfined conditions,
tube wells, pumping and recuperation
tests, ground water potential.
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING:
Ground and surface water resource, single
and multipurpose projects, storage
capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses,
reservoir sedimentation, economics of
water resources projects.
IRRIGATION ENGINEERING: Water
requirements of crops: consumptive use,
quality of water for irrigation duty and delta,
irrigation methods and their efficiencies.
Canals: Distribution systems for canal
irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses,
alignment of main and distributory canals,
most efficient section, lined canals, their
design, regime theory, critical shear stress,
bed load, local and suspended load
transport, cost analysis of lined and unlied
canals, drain-age behind lining.
Water logging: causes and control, drain-
age system design, salinity.
Canal structures: Design of cross
regulators, head regulators, canal falls,
aqueducts, metering flumes and canal
Diversion head work: Principles and
design of weirs of permeable and
impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory,
energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment
Storage Works: Types of dams, design,
principles of rigid gravity and earth dams,
stability analysis, foundation treatment,
joints and galleries, control of seepage.
Spillways: Spillway types, crest gates,
River training: Objectives of river
training, methods of river training.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING :
Water Supply : Estimation of surface and
subsurface water resources, predicting
demand for water, impurities of water and
their significance, physical, chemical and
bacteriological analysis, waterborne
diseases, standards for potable water.
Intake of water: Pumping and gravity
schemes. Water treatment: Princi-ples of
coagulation, flocculation and
sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-,
filters; chlorination, softening, removal of
taste, odour and salinity.
Water storage and distribution: Storage
and balancing reservoirs: types, location
and capacity. Distribution system: layout,
hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves
including check and pressure reducing
valves, meters, analysis of distribution
systems, leak detection, maintenance of
distribution systems, pumping stations
and their operations.
Sewerage systems: Domestic and
industrial wastes, storm sewage-separate
and combined systems, flow through
sewers, design of sewers, sewer
appurtenances, manholes, inlets,
junctions, siphon, Plumbing in Public
Sewage characterisation: BOD, COD,
solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and
TOC. Standards of disposal in normal
water course and on land.
Sewage treatment: Working principles,
units, chambers, sedimentation tanks,
trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated
sludge process, septic tank; disposal of
sludge, recycling of waste water.
Solid waste : Collection and disposal in
rural and urban contexts, management of
Environmental pollution: Sustainable
development. Radioactive wastes and
disposal, Environmental impact
assessment for thermal power plants,
mines, river valley projects, Air pollution,
Pollution control acts.
1. Silviculture – General:
General Silvicultural Principles:
Ecological and physiological factors
influencing vegetation, natural and artificial
regeneration of forests; methods of
propagation, grafting techniques; site
factors; nursery and planting techniques-
nursery beds, poly-bags and
maintenance, water budgeting, grading
and hardening of seedlings; special
approaches; establishment and tending.
Clear felling, uniform shelter wood
selection, coppice and conversion
systems, Management of silviculture
systems of temperate, subtropical, humid
tropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical
forests with special reference to plantation
silviculture, choice of species,
establishment and management of
standards, enrichment methods, technical
constraints, intensive mechanized
methods, aerial seeding, thinning.
3. Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold
Mangrove: Habitat and characteristics,
mangrove, plantation-establishment and
rehabilitation of degraded mangrove
formations; silvicultural systems for
mangrove; protection of habitats against
Cold desert- Characteristics, identification
and management of species.
4. Silviculture of trees:
Traditional and recent advances in tropical
silvicultural research and practices.
Silviculture of some of the economically
important species in India such as Acacia
catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia
auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia
procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba,
Anogeissus latifokia, Azadirachta indica,
Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia
siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus
deodara, Chukrasia tabularis, Dalbergia
sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp, Emblica
officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina
Arborea, Hardwickia binata,
Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus
roxburghi, Populus spp, Pterocarpus
marsupium, Prosopis juliflora, Santalum
album, Semecarpus anacrdium,. Shorea
robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona
grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa,
1. Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint
Forest Management and Tribology:
Agroforestry – Scope and necessity; role
in the life of people and domestic animals
and in integrated land use, planning
especially related to (i) soil and water
conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii)
nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and
eco-system preservation including
ecological balances through pest-predator
relationships and (v) Providing
opportunities for enhancing biodiversity,
medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro
forestry systems under different agro-
ecological zones; selection of species and
role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs,
techniques, food, fodder and fuel security.
Research and Extension needs.
Social/Urban Forestry : Objectives, scope
and necessity; peoples participation.
JFM – Principles, objectives, methodology,
scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
Tribology: Tribal scene in India; tribes,
concept of races, Principles of social
grouping, stages of tribal economy,
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011
education, cultural tradition, customs,
ethos and participation in forestry
2. Forest Soils, soil Conservation and
Forests Soils: Classification, factors
affecting soil formation; physical, chemical
and biological properties.
Soil conservation – definition, causes for
erosion; types-wind and water erosion;
conservation and management of eroded
soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts;
sand dunes; reclamation of saline and
alkaline soils, water logged and other
waste lands. Role of forests in conserving
soils. Maintenance and build up of soil
organic matter, provision of loppings for
green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and
composting; Role of micro-organisms in
ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
Watershed Management – Concepts of
watershed; role of mini-forests and forest
trees in overall resource management,
forest hydrology, watershed development
in respect of torrent control, river channel
stabilization, avalanche and landslide
controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas;
hilly and mountain areas; watershed
management and environmental functions
of forests; water-harvesting and
conservation; ground water recharge and
watershed management; role of
integrating forest trees, horticultural crops,
field crops, grass and fodders.
3. Environmental Conservation and
Environment : Components and
importance, principles of conservation,
impact of deforestation; forest fires and
various human activities like mining,
construction and developmental projects,
population growth on environment.
Pollution: Types, Global warming, green
house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid
rain, impact and control measures,
environmental monitoring; concept of
sustainable development. Role of trees
and forests in environmental conservation;
control and prevention of air, water and
noise pollution. Environmental policy and
legislation in India. Environmental impact
Assessment, Economics assessment of
watershed development vis-a-vis
ecological and environmental protection.
4. Tree Improvement and Seed
General concept of tree improvement,
methods and techniques, variation and its
use, provenance, seed source, exotics;
quantitative aspects of forest tree
improvement, seed production and seed
orchards, progeny tests, use of tree
improvement in natural forest and stand
improvement, genetic testing
programming, selection and breeding for
resistance to diseases, insects, and
adverse environment; the genetic base,
forest genetic resources and gene
conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost
benefit ratio, economic evaluation.
1. Forest Management and
Objective and principles; techniques;
stand structure and dynamics, sustained
yield relation; rotation, normal forest,
growing stock; regulation of yield;
management of forest plantations,
commercial forests, forest cover
monitoring. Approaches viz., (i) site-specific
planning, (ii) strategic planning, (iii)
Approval, sanction and expenditure. (iv)
Monitoring (v) Reporting and governance.
Details of steps involved such as formation
of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest
2. Forest Working Plan:
Forest planning, evaluation and
monitoring tools and approaches for
integrated planning; multipurpose
development of forest resources and forest
industries development; working plans
and working schemes, their role in nature
conservation, bio-diversity and other
dimensions; preparation and control.
Divisional Working Plans, Annual Plan of
3. Forest Mensuration and Remote
Methods of measuring- diameter, girth,
height and volume of trees; form-factor;
volume estimation of stand, current annual
increment; mean annual increment,
Sampling methods and sample plots.
Yield calculation; yield and stand tables,
forest cover monitoring through remote
sensing; Geographic Information Systems
for management and modelling.
4. Surveying and Forest Engineering: Forest
surveying – different methods of surveying,
maps and map reading. Basic principles of
forest engineering. Building materials and
construction. Roads and Bridges, General
principles, objects, types, simple design and
construction of timber bridges.
1. Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany:
Forest Ecology: Biotic and aboitic
components, forest eco-systems; forest
community concepts; vegetation concepts,
ecological succession and climax, primary
productivity, nutrient cycling and water
relations; physiology in stress environments
(drought, water logging salinity and
alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification
of species, composition and associations;
dendrology, taxonomic classification,
principles and establishment of herbaria
and arboreta. Conservation of forest
ecosystems. Clonal parks.
Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of
Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani -
Introduction, nomenclature, habitat,
distribution and botanical features of
medicinal and aromatic plants. Factors
affecting action and toxicity of drug plants
and their chemical constituents.
2. Forest Resources and Utilization:
Environmentally sound forest harvesting
practices; logging and extraction
techniques and principles, transportation
systems, storage and sale; Non-Timber
Forest Products (NTFPs) – definition and
scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres,
oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos,
medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac,
katha and Bidi leaves, collection;
processing and disposal, need and
importance of wood seasoning and
preservation; general principles of
seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar
dehumidification, steam heated and
electrical kilns. Composite wood;
adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses,
plywood manufacture-properties, uses,
fibre boards-manufacture properties,
uses; particle boards-manufacture;
properties, uses. Present status of
composite wood industry in India and
future expansion plans. Pulp-paper and
rayon; present position of supply of raw
material to industry, wood substitution,
utilization of plantation wood; problems
Anatomical structure of wood, defects and
abnormalities of wood, timber
3. Forest Protection & wildlife Biology:
Injuries to forest – abiotic and biotic,
destructive agencies, insect-pests and
disease, effects of air pollution on forests
and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests
to damage, nature of damage, cause,
prevention, protective measures and
benefits due to chemical and biological
control. General forest protection against
fire, equipment and methods, controlled
use of fire, economic and environmental
costs; timber salvage operations after
natural disasters. Role of afforestation and
forest regeneration in absorption of CO2.
Rotational and controlled grazing, different
methods of control against grazing and
browsing animals; effect of wild animals
on forest regeneration, human impacts;
encroachment, poaching, grazing, live
fencing, theft, shifting cultivation and control.
4. Forest Economics and Legislation:
Forest economics: Fundamental
principles, cost-benefit analyses;
estimation of demand and supply; analysis
of trends in the national and international
market and changes in production and
consumption patterns; assessment and
projection of market structures; role of
private sector and co-operatives; role of
corporate financing. Socio-economic
analysis of forest productivity and attitudes;
valuation of forest goods and service.
Legislation-History of forest development;
Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and
1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of
People’s involvement, Joint Forest
Management, Involvement of women;
Forestry policies and issues related to land
use, timber and non-timber products,
sustainable forest management;
industrialisation policies; institutional and
structural changes. Decentralization and
Forestry Public Administration. Forest laws,
necessity; general principles, Indian Forest
Act 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980;
Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their
amendments; Application of Indian Penal
Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of
(i) General Geology:
The Solar System, meteorities, origin and
interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age
of earth; Volcanoes-causes and products,
volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes,
effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of
India, intensity and magnitude,
seismongraphs. Island arcs, deep sea
trenches and mid-ocean ridges.
Continental drift-evidences and
mechanics; sea-floor spreading, plate
tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and
epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.
(ii) Geomorphology and Remote
Basic concepts of geomorphology.
Weathering and mass wasting.
Landforms, slopes and drainage.
Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation,
Morphology and its relation to structures
and lithology. Applications of
geomorphology in mineral prospecting,
civil engineering, hydrology and
environmental studies. Geomorphology of
Aerial photographs and their interpretation-
merits and limitations. The
Electromagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting
satellites and sensor systems. Indian
Remote Sensing Satellites. Satellites data
products. Applications of remote sensing
in geology. The Geographic Information
System and its applications. Global
(iii) Structural geology:
Principles of geologic mapping and map
reading, projection diagrams, stress and
strain ellipsoid and stress-strain
relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous
materials. Strain markers in deformed
rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks
under deformation conditions. Folds and
faults classification and mechanics.
Structural analysis of folds, foliations,
lineations, joints and faults,
unconformities. Superposed deformation.
Time – relationship between crystallization
and deformation. Introduction to
Species definition and nomenclature.
Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of
preservation of fossils. Different kinds of
micro fossils. Application of microfossils
in correlation, petroleum exploration,
paleo-climatic and pale oceanographic
studies, Morphology, geological history
and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda,
Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echi-noidea and
Anthozoa, Stratigraphic utility of
Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea,
Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae
and Probo-scidae. Siwalik fauna,
Gondwana flora and its importance.
(v) Stratigraphy and Geology of India:
Classification of stratigraphic sequences:
lit ho strati graphic, biostratigraphic,
magnetostratigraphic and their
interrelationships. Distribution and
classification of Precambrian rocks of
India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and
lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with
reference to fauna, flora and economic
importance. Major boundary problems -
Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and
Pliocene/ Pleistocene. Study of climatic
conditions, paleogeography and igneous
activity in the Indian subcontinent in the
geological past. Tectonic framework of
India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
(vi) Hydrogeology and Engineering
Geology: Hydrologic cycle and genetic
classification of water. Movement of
subsurface water, Springs. Porosity,
permeability, hydraulic conductivity,
transmissivity and storage coefficient,
classification of aquifers. Water-bearing
characteristics of rocks. Ground-water
chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of
wells. Drainage basin morphometry.
Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater
recharge. Problems and management of
groundwater, Rainwater harvesting.
Engineering properties of rocks. Geological
investigations for dams, tunnels and
bridges. Rock as construction material.
Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides
causes, prevention and rehabilitation.
Classification of crystals into systems and
classes of symmetry. International system
of crystallographic notation. Use of
projection diagrams to represent crystal
symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of x-
Petrological microscope and accessories.
Optical properties of common rock forming
minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle,
double refraction, birefringence, twinning
and dispersion in minerals.
Physical and chemical characters of rock
forming silicate mineral groups. Structural
classification of silicates. Common
minerals of igneous and metamorphic
rocks. Minerals of the caronate, phosphate,
sulphide and halide groups.
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:
Generation and crystallisation of magma.
Crystallisation of albite-anorthite,
diopside-anorthite and diopside-
wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction
principle. Magmatic differentiation and
assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of
the textures and structures of igneous
rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of
granite, syenite, diorite, basic and
ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite
and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan
Types and agents of metamorphism.
Metamorphic grades and zones. Phase
rule. Facies of regional and contact
metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams.
Textures and structures of metamorphic
rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous,
argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals
metamorphism. Metasomatism and
granitisation, migmatities, granulite
terrains of India.
Sedimentary rocks: Processes of
formation, diagenesis and lithification,
Properties of sediments. Clastic and non-
clastic rocks-their classification,
petrography and depositional
environment, Sedimentary facies and
provenance. Sedimentary structures and
their significance. Heavy minerals and their
significance. Sedimentary basins of India.
Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of
ore, classification of ore deposits. Process
of formation of minerals deposits. Controls
of ore locallisation. Ore textures and
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011
structures, Metallogenic epochs and
provinces, Geology of the important Indian
deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper,
gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium,
uranium and thorium and industrial
minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum
in India. National Mineral Policy.
Conservation and utilization of mineral
resources. Marine mineral resources and
Law of Sea.
Methods of prospecting-geological, geo-
physical, geo-chemical and geo-botanical,
Techniques of sampling. Estimation of
reserves of ore, Methods of exploration and
mining metalic ores, industrial minerals
and marine mineral resources. Mineral
beneficiation and ore dressing.
Geochemistry and Environmental
Cosmic abundance of elements,
Composition of the planets and
meteorites, Structure and composition of
earth and distribution of elements, Trace
elements, Elements of crystal chemistry -
types of chemical bonds, coordination
number, Isomorphism and polymorphism,
Natural hazards-floods, landslides,
coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic
activity and mitigation, Environmental
impact of urbanization, open cast mining,
industrial and radioactive waste disposal,
use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste
and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and
surface water, marine pollution,
measures in India.
Linear Algebra :
Vector, space, linear dependence and
independence, subspaces, bases,
dimensions. Finite dimensional vector
spaces. Matrices, Cayley-Hamilition
theorem, eigen-values and eigenvectors,
matrix of linear transformation, row and
column reduction, Echelon form,
equivalences, congruences and similarity,
reduction to cannonical form, rank,
orthogonal, symmetrical, skew
symmetrical, unitary, hermitian, skew-
hermitian forms- their eigenvalues.
Orthogonal and unitary reduction of
quadratic and hermitian forms, positive
definite quardratic forms.
Real numbers, limits, continuity,
differentiability, mean-value theorems,
Taylor’s theorem with remainders,
indeterminate forms, maxima and minima,
asymptotes. Functions of several
variables: continuity, differentiability, partial
derivatives, maxima and minima,
Lagrange’s method of multipliers,
Jacobian. Riemann’s definition of definite
integrals, indefinite integrals, infinite and
improper integrals, beta and gamma
functions. Double and triple integrals
(evaluation techniques only). Areas,
surface and volumes, centre of gravity.
Analytical Geometry :
Cartesian and polar coordinates in two
and three dimensions, second degree
equations in two and three dimensions,
reduction to cannonical forms, straight
lines, shortest distance between two skew
lines, plane, sphere, cone, cylinder,
paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one
and two sheets and their properties.
Ordinary Differential Equations:
Formulation of differential equations, order
and degree, equations of first order and
first degree, integrating factor, equations
of first order but not of first degree,
Clariaut’s equation, singular solution.
Higher order linear equations with
constant coefficients, complementary
function and particular integral, general
solution, Euler-Cauchy equation.
Second order linear equations with
variable coefficients, determination of
complete solution when one solution is
known, method of variation of parameters.
Dynamics, Statics and Hydrostatics:
Degree of freedom and constraints,
rectilinear motion, simple harmonic
motion, motion in a plane, projectiles,
constrained motion, work and energy,
conservation of energy, motion under
impulsive forces, Kepler’s laws, orbits
under central forces, motion of varying
mass, motion under resistance.
Equilibrium of a system of particles, work
and potential energy, friction, common
catenary, principle of virtual work, stability
of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three
Pressure of heavy fluids, equilibrium of
fluids under given system of forces,
Bernoulli’s equation, centre of pressure,
thrust on curved surfaces, equilibrium of
floating bodies, stability of equilibrium,
meta-centre, pressure of gases.
Scalar and vector fields, triple products,
differentiation of vector function of a scalar
variable, gradient, divergence and curl in
Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical
coordinates and their physical
interpretations. Higher order derivatives,
vector identities and vector equations.
Application to Geometry: Curves in space
curvature and torision. Serret-Frenet’s
formulae, Gauss and Stokes’ theorems,
Groups, sub-groups, normal subgroups,
homomorphism of groups, quotient
groups, basic isomorphism theorems,
Sylow’s group, permutation groups, Cayley
theorem, rings and ideals, principal ideal
domains, unique factorization domains
and Euclidean domains. Field extensions,
Real number system, ordered sets,
bounds, ordered field, real number system
as an ordered field with least upper bound
property, Cauchy sequence,
completeness, Continuity and uniform
continuity of functions, properties of
continuous functions on compact sets.
Riemann integral, improper integrals,
absolute and conditional convergence of
series of real and complex terms,
rearrangement of series, Uniform
convergence, continuity, differentiability and
integrability for sequences and series of
functions. Differentiation of functions of
several variables, change in the order of
partial derivatives, implicit function
theorem, maxima and minima, Multiple
Analytic function Cauchy-Riemann
equations, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s
integral formula, power series, Taylor’s
series, Laurent’s Series, Singularities,
Cauchy’s residue theorem, contour
integration, Conformal mapping, bilinear
Linear programming problems, basic
solution, basic feasible solution and
optimal solution, graphical method and
Simplex method of solutions, Duality.
Transportation and assignment problems,
Travelling salesman problems.
Partial differential equations:
Curves and surfaces in three dimensions,
formulation of partial differentiation
equations, solutions of equations of type
dx/p=dy/q=dz/r; orthogonal trajectories,
Pfaffian differential equations; partial
differential equation of the first order,
solution by Cauchy’s method of
characteristics; Charpit’s method of
solutions, linear partial differential
equations of the second order with
constant coefficients, equations of vibrating
string, heat equation, Laplace equation.
Numerical analysis and Computer
Numerical methods: solution of algebraic
and transcendental equations of one
variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and
Newton-Raphson methods, solution of
system of linear equations by Gaussian
elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct)
methods, Gauss-Seidel (iterative) method.
Newton’s (Forward and backward) and
Lagrange’s method of interpolation.
Numerical integration: Simpson’s one-
third rule, tranpezodial rule, Gaussian
Numerical solution of ordinary differential
equations: Euler and Runge Kutta-
methods. Computer Programming:
Storage of numbers in computers, bits,
bytes and words, binary system, arithmetic
and logical operations on numbers,
Bitwise operations. AND, OR, SOR, NOT,
and shift/rotate operators, Octal and
Hexadecimal Systems. Conversion to and
form decimal Systems. Representation of
unsigned integers, signed integers and
reals, double precision reals and long
Algorithms and flow charts for solving
numerical analysis problems.
Developing simple programs in Basic for
problems involving techniques covered in
the numerical analysis.
Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics:
Generalised coordinates, constraints,
holonomic and non-holonomic, systems,
D’ Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’s
equations, Hamilton equations, moment
of inertia, motion of rigid bodies in two
Equation of continuity, Euler’s equation of
motion for inviscid flow, stream-lines, path
of a particle, potential flow, two-dimensional
and axisymetric motion, sources and
sinks, vortex motion, flow past a cylinder
and a sphere, method of images. Navier-
Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.
1. Theory of Machines :
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar
mechanisms, Cams, Gears and gear
trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of
rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multi-
cylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis
of mechanical systems (single degree
and two degrees of freedom), Critical
speeds and whirling of shafts, Automatic
Controls, Belts and chain drives.
2. Mechanics of Solids :
Stress and strain in two dimensions,
Principal stresses and strains, Mohr’s
construction, linear elastic materials,
isotropy and anisotropy, Stress-strain
relations, unilaxial loading, thermal stresses,
Beams: Banding moment and shear force
diagrams, bending stresses and deflection
of beams, Shear stress distribution. Torsion
of shafts, helical springs. Combined
stresses, Thick and thin walled pressure
vessels. Struts and columns. Strain energy
concepts and theories of failure. Rotating
discs. Shrink fits.
3. Engineering Materials :
Basic concepts on structure of solids,
crystalline materials, Defects in crystalline
materials, Alloys and binary phase
diagrams, structure and properties of
common engineering materials. Heat
treatment of steels, plastics, Ceramics and
composite Materials, common
applications of various materials.
4. Manufacturing Science
Merchant’s force analysis, Taylor’s tool life
equation, machinability and machining
economics, Rigid, small and flexible
automation, NC, CNC. Recent machining
methods-EDM, ECM and ultrasonic.
Application of lasers and plasmas,
analysis of forming processes. High
energy rate forming Jigs, fixtures, tools and
gauges, Inspection of length, position,
profile and surface finish.
5. MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT :
Production Planning and Control,
Forecasting-moving average, exponential
smoothing, Operations sheduling;
assembly line balancing. Product
development, Breakeven analysis, Capacity
planning. PERT and CPM. Control Opera-
tions: Inventory control-ABC analysis, EOQ
model, Materials requirement planning, Job
design, Job standards, work measurement,
Quality management-Quality control
Operations Research: Linear
programming-Graphical and Simplex
methods, Transportation and assignment
models, Single server queuing model.
Value Engineering: Value analysis, for cost/
value, Total quality management and
forecasting techniques. Project
6. ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION :
Computer Organisation, Flow charting,
Features of Common Computer
Languages FORTRAN, d Base-III, Lotus
1-2-3, C and elementary programming.
Basic concept, Open and closed systems,
Applications of Thermo-dynamic Laws,
Gas equations, Clapeyron equation,
Availability, Irreversibility and T ds relations.
2. I.C. Engines, Fuels and Combustion:
Spark Ignition and compression ignition
engines, four stroke engine and two stroke
engines, mechanical, thermal and
volumetric efficiency, Heat balance.
Combustion process in S.I. and C.I.
engines, pre-ignition detonation in S.I.
engine Diesel knock in C.I. engine. Choice
of engine fuels, Octane and Cetane
retings. Alternate fuels Carburration and
Fuel injection, Engine emissions and
control, Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels,
stoichometric air requirements and excess
air factor, fuel gas analysis, higher and
lower calorific values and their
3. HEAT TRANSFER, REFRIGERATION
AND AIR CONDITIONING :
One and two dimensional heat
conduction. Heat transfer from extended
surfaces, heat transfer by forced and free
convection. Heat exchangers,
Fundamentals for diffusive and connective
mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat
exchange between black and non black
surfaces, Network Analysis, Heat pump
refrigeration cycles and systems,
Condensers, evaporators and expansion
devices and controls, Properties and
choice of refrigerant, Refrigeration
Systems and components,
psychometrics, comfort indices, cooling
loading calculations, solar refrigeration.
4. TURBO-MACHINES AND POWER
Continuity, momentum and Energy
Equations. Adiabatic and Isentropic flow,
fanno lines, Raylegh lines, Theory and
design of axial flow turbines and
compressors, Flow through turbo-machine
balde, cascades, centrifugal compressor.
Dimensional analysis and modelling.
Selection of site for steam, hydro nuclear
and stand-by power plants, Selection base
and peak load power plants, Modern High
Pressure, High duty boilers, Draft and dust
removal equipment, Fuel and cooling
water systems, heat balance, station and
plant heat rates, operation and
maintenance of various power plants,
preventive maintenance, economics of
1. Classical Mechanics
(a) Particle dynamics:
Centre of mass and laboratory
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011
coordinates, conservation of linear and
angular momentum, The rocket equation,
Rutherford scattering, Galilean
transformation, inertial and non-inertial
frames, rotating frames, centrifugal and
Coriolls forces, Foucault pendulum.
(b) System of particles :
Constraints, degrees of freedom,
generalised coordinates and momenta.
Lagrange’s equation and applications to
linear harmonic oscillator, simple pendulum
and central force problems. Cyclic
coordinates, Hamiltonian Lagrange’s
equation from Hamilton’s principle.
(c) Rigid body dynamics :
Eulerian angles, inertia tensor, principal
moments of inertia. Euler’s equation of
motion of a rigid body, force-free motion of
a rigid body, Gyroscope.
2. Special Relativity, Waves & Geometrical
(a) Special Relativity :
Michelson-Morley experiment and its
implications, Lorentz transformations-
length contraction, time dilation, addition
of velocities, aberration and Doppler effect,
mass energy relation, simple application
to a decay process, Minkowski diagram,
four dimensional momentum vector.
Covariance of equations of physics.
(b) Waves :
Simple harmonic motion, damped
oscillation, forced oscillation and
resonance, Beats, Stationary waves in a
string. Pulses and wave packets. Phase
and group velocities. Reflection and
Refraction from Huygens’ principle.
(c) Geometrical Optics :
Laws of reflection and refraction from
Format’s principle. Matrix method in
paraxial optic-thin-lens formula, nodal
planes, system of two thin lenses,
chromatic and spherical aberrations.
3. Physical Optics :
(a) Interference :
Interference of light-Young’s experiment,
Newton’s rings, interference by thin films,
Michelson interferometer. Multiple beam
interference and Fabry-Perot
interferometer. Holography and simple
(b) Diffraction :
Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double
slit, diffraction grating, resolving power.
Fresnel diffraction:- half-period zones and
zones plates. Fersnel integrals. Application
of Cornu’s spiral to the analysis of
diffraction at a straight edge and by a long
narrow slit. Deffraction by a circular
aperture and the Airy pattern.
(c) Polarisation and Modern Optics :
Production and detection of linearly and
circularly polarised light. Double refraction,
quarter wave plate. Optical activity. Principles
of fibre optics attenuation; pulse dispersion
in step index and parabolic index fibres;
material dispersion, single mode fibres.
Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients, Ruby
and He-Ne lasers. Characteristics of laser
light-spatial and temporal coherence.
Focussing of laser beams. Three-level
scheme for laser operation.
4. Electricity and Magnetism:
(a) Electrostatics and Magneto-statics :
Laplace and Poisson equations in electro-
statics and their applications. Energy of a
system of charges, multiple expansion of
scalar potential. Method of images and its
applications. Potential and field due to a
dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an
external field. Dielectrics, polarisation,
Solutions to boundary-value problems-
conducting and dielectric spheres in a
uniform electric field. Magnetic shell,
uniformly magnetised sphere.
Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis,
(b) Current Electricity :
Kirchhoffs laws and their applications, Biot-
Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law,
Lenz’ law. Self and mutual inductances. Mean
and rms values in AC circuits, LR, CR and
LCR circuits-series and parallel resonance,
Quality factor, Principle of transformer.
5. Electromagnetic Theory & Black Body
(a) Electromagnetic Theory :
Displacement current and Maxwell’s
equations. Wave equations in vacuum,
Poynting theorem, Vector and scalar
potentials, Gauge invariance, Lorentz and
Coulomb gauges, Electromagnetic field
tensor, covariance of Maxwell’s equations.
Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics,
reflection and refraction at the boundary of
two dielectrics. Fresnel’s relations, Normal
and anomalous dispersion, Rayleigh
(b) Blackbody radiation :
Blackbody radiation ad Planck radiation
law-Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien
displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans law,
Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time,
Plank temperature and Planck energy.
6. Thermal and Statistical Physics :
(a) Thermodynamics :
Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and
irreversible processes, entropy,
Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric
processes and entropy change, Otto and
Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and
chemical potential. Van der Waals
equation of state of real gas, critical
constants. Maxwell-Boltzman distribution
of molecular velocities, transport
phenomena, equipartition and virial
theorems, Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and
Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids.
Maxwell relations and applications.
Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Adiabatic
demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and
liquefication of gases.
(b) Statistical Physics :
Saha ionization formula, Bose-Einstein
condensation, Thermodynamic behaviour
of an ideal Fermi gas, Chandrasekhar
limit, elementary ideas about neutron stars
and pulsars, Brownian motion as a
random walk, diffusion process. Concept
of negative temperatures.
1. Quantum Mechanics I :
Wave-particle duality. Schroedinger
equation and expectation values.
Uncertainty principle, Solutions of the one-
dimensional Schroedinger equation free
particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle
in a box, particle in a finite well, linear,
harmonic oscillator, Reflection and
transmission by a potential step and by a
rectangular barrier, use of WKB formula
for the life-time calculation in the alpha-
2. Quantum Mechanics II & Atomic
(a) Quantum Mechanics II :
Particle in a three dimensional box, density
of states, free electron theory of metals,
The angular momentum problem, The
hydrogen atom, The spin half problem and
properties of Pauli spin matrices.
(b) Atomic Physics :
Stern-Gerlack experiment, electron spin,
fine structure of hydrogen atom, L-S
coupling, J-J coupling, Spectroscopic
notation of atomic states, Zeeman effect,
Frank-Condon principle and
3. Molecular Physics :
Elementary theory of rotational, vibrational
and electronic spectra of diatomic
molecules, Raman effect and molecular
structure, Laser Raman spectroscopy
importance of neutral hydrogen atom,
molecular hydrogen and molecular
hydrogen ion in astronomy Fluorescence
and Phos-phorescence, Elementary
theory and applications of NMR.
Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and
4. Nuclear Physics :
Basic nuclear properties-size, binding
energy, angular momentum, parity,
magnetic moment, Semi-empirical mass
formula and applications, Mass parabolas,
Ground state of deuteron magnetic
moment and non-central forces, Meson
theory of nuclear forces, Salient features
of nuclear forces, Shell model of the
nucleus-success and limitations, Violation
of parity in beta decay, Gamma decay and
internal conversion, Elementary ideas
about Mossbauer spectroscopy, Q-value
of nuclear reactions, Nuclear fission and
fusion, energy production in stars, Nuclear
5. Particle Physics & Solid State Physics:
(a) Particle Physics :
Classification of elementary particles and
their interactions, Conservation laws,
Quark structure of hadrons. Field quanta
of electro-weak and strong interactions.
Elementary ideas about Unification of
Forces, Physics of neutrinos.
(b) Solid State Physics :
Cubic crystal structure, Band theory of
solids-conductors, insulators and semi-
conductors, Elements of superconductivity,
Meissner effect, Joseph-son junctions and
applications, Elementary ideas about high
6. Electronics :
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors-p-
n-p and n-p-n transistors, Amplifiers and
oscillators, Op-amps, FET, JFET and
MOSFET, Digital electronics-Boolean
identities, De-Morgan’s laws, Logic gates
and truth tables, Simple logic circuits,
Thermistors, solar cells, Fundamentals of
microprocessors and digital computers.
Sample space and events, probability
measure and probability space, random
variable as a measurable function,
distribution function of a random variable,
discrete and continuous-type random
variable, probability mass function,
probability density function, vector-valued
random variable, marginal and conditional
distributions, stochastic independence of
events and of random variables,
expectation and moments of a random
variable, conditional expectation,
convergence of a sequence of random
variable in distribution, in probability, in p-
th mean and almost everywhere, their
criteria and inter-relations, Borel-Cantelli
lemma, Chebyshev’s and Khinchine’s
weak laws of large numbers, strong law of
large numbers and Kolmogorov’s
theorems, Glivenko-Cantelli theorem,
probability generating function,
characteristic function, inversion theorem,
Laplace transform, related uniqueness
and continuity theorems, determination of
distribution by its moments. Linderberg
and Levy forms of central limit theorem,
standard discrete and continuous
probability distributions, their inter-
relations and limiting cases, simple
properties of finite Markov chains.
Statistical Inference :
Consistency, unbiasedness, efficiency,
sufficiency, minimal sufficiency,
completeness, ancillary statistic,
factorization theorem, exponential family
of distribution and its properties, uniformly
minimum variance unbiased (UMVU)
estimation, Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-
Scheffe theorems, Cramer-Rao inequality
for single and several-parameter family of
distributions, minimum variance bound
estimator and its properties, modifications
and extensions of Cramer-Rao inequality,
Bhattacharya’s bounds, estimation by
methods of moments, maximum
likelihood, least squares, minimum chi-
square and modified minimum chi-square
properties of maximum likelihood and
other estimators, idea of asymptotic
efficiency, idea of prior and posterior
distributions, Bayes’, estimators.
Non-randomised and randomised tests,
critical function, MP tests, Neyman-
Pearson lemma, UMP tests, monotone
likelihood ratio, generalised Neyman-
Pearson lemma, similar and unbiased
tests, UMPU tests for single and several-
parameter families of distributions,
likelihood rotates and its large sample
properties, chi-square goodness of fit test
and its asymptotic distribution.
Confidence bounds and its relation with
tests, uniformly most accurate (UMA) and
UMA unbiased confidence bounds.
Kolmogorov’s test for goodness of fit and
its consistency, sign test and its optimality,
Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and its
consistency, Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-
sample test, run test, Wilcoxon-Mann-
Whitney test and median test, their
consistency and asymptotic normality.
Wald’s SPRT and its properties, OC and
ASN functions, Wald’s fundamental
identity, sequential estimation.
Linear Inference and Multivariate
Linear statistical models, theory of least
squares and analysis of variance, Gauss-
Markoff theory, normal equations, least
squares estimates and their precision, test
of significance and interval estimates
based on least squares theory in one-way,
two-way and three-way classified data,
regression analysis, linear regression,
curvilinear regression and orthogonal
polynomials, multiple regression, multiple
and partial correlations, regression
diagnostics and sensitivity analysis,
calibration problems, estimation of
variance and covariance components,
MINQUE theory, multivariate normal
distribution, Mahalanobis; D2 and
Hotelling’s T2 statistics and their
applications and properties, discriminant
analysis, canonical correlations, one-way
MANOVA, principal component analysis,
elements of factor analysis.
Sampling Theory and Design of
An outline of fixed-population and super-
population approaches, distinctive
features of finite population sampling,
probability sampling designs, simple
random sampling with and without
replacement, stratified random sampling,
systematic sampling and its efficacy for
structural populations, cluster sampling,
two-stage and multi-stage sampling, ratio
and regression, methods of estimation
involving one or more auxiliary variables,
two-phase sampling, probability
proportional to size sampling with and
without replacement, the Hansen-Hurwitz
and the Horvitz-Thompson estimator, non-
negative variance estimation with
reference to the Horvitz-Thompson
estimators, non-sampling errors, Warner’s
randomised response technique for
Fixed effects model (two-way
classification) random and mixed effects
models (two-way classification with equal
number of observation per cell), CRD,
RBD, LSD and their analysis, incomplete
block designs, concepts of orthogonality
and balance, BIBD, missing plot
technique, factorial designs: 2n, 32 and 33,
confounding in factorial experiments, split-
plot and simple lattice designs.
I. Industrial Statistics:
Process and product control, general
theory of control charts, different types of
control charts for variables and attributes,
X, R, s, p, np and c charts, cumulative sum
chart, V-mask, single, double, multiple and
sequential sampling plans for attributes,
OC, ASN, AQQ and ATI curves, concepts of
producer’s and consumer’s risks, AQL,
LTPD and AOQL, sampling plans for
variables, use of Dodge-Roming and
Military Standard tables. Concepts of
reliability, maintainability and availability,
Employment News 19 – 25 March 2011
reliability of series and parallel systems
and other simple configurations, renewal
density and renewal function, survival
models (exponential, Weibull, lognormal,
Rayleigh, and bath-tub), different types of
redundancy and use of redundancy in
reliability improvement. Problems in life-
testing censored and truncated
experiments for exponential models.
II. Optimization Techniques:
Different types of models in Operational
Research, their construction and general
methods of solution, simulation and
Monte-Carlo methods, the structure and
formulation of linear programming (LP)
problem, simple LP model and its
graphical solution, the simplex procedure,
the two-phase method and the M-
technique with artificial variables, the
duality theory of LP and its economic
interpretation, sensitivity analysis,
transportation and assignment problems,
rectangular games, two-person zero- sum
games, method of solution (graphical and
Replacement of failing or deteriorating
items, group and individual replacement
policies, concept of scientific inventory
management and analytical structure of
inventory problems, simple models with
deterministic and stochastic demand with
and without lead time, storage models with
particular reference to dam type.
Homogeneous discrete-time Markov
chains, transition probability matrix,
classification of states and ergodic
theorems, homogeneous continuous-
time Markov chains, Poisson process,
elements of queuing theory, M/M/1, M/M/K,
G/M/1 and M/G/1 queues.
Solution of statistical problems on
computers using well-known statistical
software packages like SPSS.
III. Quantitative Economics and Official
Determination of trend, seasonal and
cyclical components, Box-Jenkins method,
tests for stationery of series, ARIMA models
and determination of orders of
autoregressive and moving average
Commonly used index numbers-
Laspeyre’s, Paashe’s and Fisher’s ideal
Index numbers, chain-base index
numbers, uses and limitations of index
numbers, index number of wholesale
prices, consumer price index number,
index numbers of agricultural and
industrial production, test for index
numbers like proportionality test, time-
reversal test, factor-reversal test, circular
test and dimensional invariance test.
General linear model, ordinary least
squares and generalised least squares
methods of estimation, problem of multi-
collinearity, consequences and solutions
of multi-collinearity, autocorrelation and its
consequences, heteroscedasticity of
disturbances and its testing, test for
independence of disturbances, Zellner’s
seemingly unrelated regression equation
model and its estimation, concept of
structure and model for simultaneous
equations, problem of identification-rank
and order conditions of identifiability, two-
stage least squares method of estimation.
Present official statistical system in India
relating to population, agriculture,
industrial production, trade and prices,
methods of collection of official statistics,
their reliability and limitation and the
principal publications containing such
statistics, various official agencies
responsible for data collection and their
IV. Demography and Psychometry :
Demographic data from census,
registration, NSS and other surveys, and
their limitation and uses, definition,
construction and uses of vital rates and
ratios, measures of fertility, reproduction
rates, morbidity rate, standardized death
rate, complete and abridged life tables,
construction of life tables from vital
statistics and census returns, uses of life
tables, logistic and other population growth
curves, fitting a logistic curve, population
projection, stable population theory, uses
of stable population and quasi-stable
population techniques in estimation of
demographic parameters, morbidity and
its measurement, standard classification
by cause of death, health surveys and use
of hospital statistics.
Method of standardisation of scales and
tests, Z-scores, standard scores, T-
scores, percentile scores, intelligence
quotient and its measurement and uses,
validity of test scores and its determination,
use of factor analysis and path analysis in
1. Non-chordata and chordata:
(a) Classification and relationship of
various phyla up-to sub-classes;
Acoelomata and Coelomata;
Protostomes and Deuterostomes,
Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of
Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and
(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition,
reproduction; evolution of sex; general
features and life history of
Plasmodium and Leisismania.
(c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and
(d) Coelenterata: Polymorphism,
defensive structures and their
mechanism; coral reefs and their
formation; metagenesis; general
features and life history of Obelia and
(e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation;
general features and life history of
Fasciola and Taenia and their relation
(f) Nemathelminthes: General features,
life history and parasitic adaptation of
Ascaris; nemathelminths in relation
(g) Annelida: Coelom and metamerism;
modes of life in polychaetes; general
features and life history of nereis
(Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima)
and leach (Hirundaria).
(h) Arthropoda: Larval forms and
parasitism in Crustacea; vision and
respiration in arthropods (prawn,
cockroach and scorpion); modification
of mouth parts in insects (cockroach,
mosquito, housefly, honey bee and
butterfly); metamorphosis in insects
and its hormonal regulation; social
organization in insects (termites and
(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration,
locomotion, shell diversity; general
features and life history of
Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion
and detorsion in gastropods.
(j) Echinodermata: Feeding respiration,
locomotion larval forms; general
features and life history of Asterias.
(k) Protochordata: Origin of chordates;
general features and life history of
Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
(l) Pisces: Scales, respiration,
(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods;
parental care, paedomorphosis.
(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles; skull types;
status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.
(o) Aves: Origin of birds; flight adaptation,
(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals;
dentition; general features of egg-
laying mammals, pouched-
mammals, aquatic mammals and
primates; endocrine glands and other
hormone producing structures
(pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal,
pancreas, gonads) and their inter-
(q) Comparative functional anatomy of
various systems of vertebrates
(integument and its derivatives,
endoskeleton, locomotory organs
digestive system, respiratory system,
circulatory system including heart and
aortic arches; urino-genital system,
brain and sense organs (eye and ear).
(a) Biosphere: Biogeochemical cycles,
green-houses effect, ozone layer and
its impact; ecological succession,
biomes and ecotones.
(b) Population, characteristics,
population dynamics, population
(c) Conservation of natural resources
mineral mining, fisheries,
acquaculture; forestry; grassland;
wildlife (Project Tiger); sustainable
production in agriculture-integrated
(d) Environmental biodegradation;
pollution and its impact on
biosphere and its prevention.
(a) Behaviour: Sensory filtering,
responsiveness, sign stimuli,
learning, instinct, habituation,
(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of
pheromones in alarm spreading;
crypsis, predator detection, predator
tactics, social behaviour in insects
and primates, courtship (Drosophila,
3-spine stickleback and birds).
(c) Orientation, navigation, homing;
biological rhythms; biological clock,
tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour.
III. Economic Zoology:
(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp
culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
(b) Major infectious and communicable
diseases (small pox, plague, malaria,
tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their
vectors, pathogens and prevention.
(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their
pathogens (helminths) and vectors
(ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys)
(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla
perpusiella), oil seed (Achaea Janata)
and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).
IV. Biostatistics: Designing of
experiments; null hypothesis;
correlation, regression, distribution
and measure of central tendency, chi
square, student t-test, F-test (one-way
& two-way F-test)
V. Instrumental methods:
(a) Spectrophotometry, flame photometry,
Geiger-Muller counter, scintillation
(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).
I. Cell Biology:
(a) Structure and function of cell and its
organelles (nucleus, plasma
Golgibodies, endoplasmic reticulum,
ribosomes and lysosomes), cell
division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic
spindle and mitotic apparatus,
(b) Watson-Crick model of DNA,
replication of DNA, protein synthesis,
transcription and transcription factors.
(a) Gene structure and functions; genetic
(b) Sex chromosomes and sex
determination in Drosophilla,
nematodes and man.
(c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance,
recombination, linkage, linkage-
maps, multiple alleles, cistron
concept; genetics of blood groups.
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis: radiation
(e) Cloning technology, plasmids and
cosmids as vectors, transgenics,
transposons, DNA sequence cloning
and whole animal cloning (Principles
(f) Regulation and gene expression in
(g) Signal transduction; pedigree-
analysis; congenital diseases in man.
(h) Human genome mapping; DNA
(a) Origin of life.
(b) Natural selection, role of mutation in
evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation,
(c) Fossils and fossilization; evolution of
horse, elephant and man.
(d) Hardy-Weinberg law, causes of
change in gene frequency.
(e) Continental drift and distribution of
(a) Zoological nomenclature; international
(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates,
fats, lipids, proteins, aminoacids,
nucleic acids; saturated and
unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol.
(b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation
and reduction, oxidative
phosphorylation; energy conservation
and release, ATP, cyclic AMP – its
structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (steroid and
peptide hormones), biosynthesis and
(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of
action; immunoglobulin and
immunity; vitamins and co-enzymes.
II Physiology (with special reference to
(a) Composition and constituents of
blood; blood groups and Rh factor in
man; coagulation, factors and
mechanism of coagulation; acid-base
balance, thermo regulation.
(b) Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport;
haemoglobin: constituents and role
(c) Nutritive requirements; role of salivary
glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal
glands in digestion and absorption.
(d) Excretory products; nephron and
regulation of urine formation;
(e) Types of muscles, mechanism of
contraction of skeletal muscles.
(f) Neuron, nerve impulse-its conduction
and synaptic transmission;
(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
(h) Mechanism of hormone action.
(i) Physiology of reproduction, role of
hormones and phermones.
III. Developmental Biology:
(a) Differentiation from gamete to neurula
stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia,
induction, morphogenesis and
morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae
in frog and chick; organogenesis of
eye and heart, placentation in
(b) Role of cytoplasm in and genetic
control of development; cell lineage;
causation of metamorphosis in frog
and insects; paedogenesis and
neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell
death; ageing; blastogenesis;
(c) Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro
fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
(d) Baer’s law; evo-devo concept.
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